Monday, August 11, 2014

PG001(col. 289-292): First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: Chapter 41.

(From the 1765 Venice edition of  André Galland's "Library of the Ancient Fathers", Tome 1, folio-size, p. 9)
Author:  André Galland

Googlebooks PDF: PG001

Chapter 41

Each of you, brothers, in his own order let render thanks to God, beginning in good conscience, not transgressing the bounded rule of his <public service>, in reverence.  Not everywhere, brothers, are offered sacrifices <of perpetuity>[[77]], or of prayers[[78]], or about sins and trespasses, but than[[79]] in Jerusalem alone; but even there not in every place is <it> offered, but in front of the temple at the altar, the offering <having been inspected for faults>[[80]] by the high-priest and the aforementioned <public ministers>.  Therefore, the <ones> doing anything beyond the consensus of his counsel, have death <as> the penalty[[81]].  See[[82]], brothers, insofar as we are deemed worthy of greater thought, so much more do we undergo danger.


30.  See Clement of Alexandria, "Miscellanies" <book> 1.
77.  Supply "according to the old law".  How meritlessly, however, several infer from here that that epistle was written before the destruction of the Jerusalem temple, I have made clear in a previous admonition.--Gallandi

78.  "of prayers":  Perhaps "of thanksgivings", says Young.  But besides that the sacrifices about which this discussion <treats> are not by the 70 Elders called "thanksgiving sacrifices", but "saving", <there is no need of change>: since even "prayers" are salutary sacrifices.  Those of course, <are> <things> which are offered from a vow, Leviticus 11:6[[A]].--Mill  

     <-->Wotton <prints a text> not otherwise.--Gallandi

79.  "but than":  Thus <reads> the manuscript <according to> Wotton.  "than" is absent from the editions.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

80.  "having been inspected for faults":  A word used by <Hellenists>[[B]] and gentiles.  Now, <it> was the office of fault-inspectors, as learned men have observed, to diligently inspect lest in way a defect lay hidden in victims to be sacrificed: which primarily among the Jews <was prevalent>, <with> God himself commanding, Leviticus 22:21,22.  The author of the Apostolic Constitutions <says in> book 2, chapter 3: "<Inspect for faults> the <one intending> to be appointed to priesthood": [[Lat. Trans. Om.]]; pointing a finger to Leviticus 21:17-21.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

     --"having been inspected for faults":  What <it> is to inspect for faults, or who were fault-inspectors, learned men have taught abundantly from gentile, Jewish, <and> Christian writers.  But those approvers of victims you will find called [calf-fencers][[C]] in book 4 of Porphyry's "On abstinence from animals".--Cotelier

     --"having been inspected for faults":  Priests not only of the Jews, but also of the gentiles, used to approve hosts and diligently inspect and examine the entrails of victims, before they <made offerings>, which they[[D]] call to test from outside and to examine the victims, whereas sacred writers <sc. call it> to inspect for faults.  Whence Philo the Jew <writes in> "On Agriculture": "For <it is> strange to take concern, on the one hand, of priests, that they will be perfect <with respect to> the body and complete, and of animals <dedicated to sacrifice>, that none <even> one <sc. mutilation> overall, but not <even> the slightest mutilation suffers, and [<that> <there is need that> some even so many][[E]] to put hand to this same work, whom some name 'fault-inspectors', so that the entrails may be brought forth to the altar faultless and unharmed", etc., where <one may> observe the rationale of the term, and that <it> was used infrequently before him <sc. Philo> and only by certain ones.  However <that> may be, <in> the book "On Sacrifices", and at the beginning of the tractate "On Sacrificers", he demonstrates that the highest care had been applied in selecting these fault-inspectors <according to nobility>, who with a careful examination the individual sacrifices and the individual parts would scrutinize "from the extremities of the feet however many <marks> are visible and however many <marks> may have been hidden on the stomach and thighs", lest some sort of defect, of corruption, of stain lay hidden.  Thus Clement of Alexandria in book 4 of "Miscellanies" <says>: "And there were even in the administrations of sacrifices by the law, the fault-inspectors of the entrails".  And Chrysostom in homily 20 on the Epistle to the Romans, about the our prior examination of body and mind before we undertake to approach the sacred assembly, thus writes: "Wherefore it is necessary in every way to fault-inspect our body.  For if the <ones offering up> the ancient sacrifices reviewed everything, and permitted to offer up neither <sc. an animal with> a cut ear, nor a docked tail, nor <one itching malignantly>, nor having <a mossy growth>; so much more <is it> necessary that we offering not reasonless sheep, but ourselves, exhibit more precision and be in every way pure", etc.  And <in> homily 17 on the Epistle to the Hebrews: "Because of this also the priest then declares the holy ones, calling and through this speech fault-inspecting all, so that one may not approach unprepared", etc. Lord <Andrew> Downes in his notes thinks that for "fault-inspecting" in this passage should be replaced "recalling", but I would prefer to retain "fault-inspecting", since Chrysostom looks back to that solemn word accustomed to be used in the primitive Church in <taking part> of the awesome mysteries.  "However many <are> in repentance, depart, all," and, "Depart <those who are not able> to be in  need".  See homily 3 of the same <sc. Chrysostom> on the Epistle to the Ephesians, and weigh diligently.--Young

     --These <words> from Clement of Alexandria, page 521, <section> B, <are> badly altered and expressed.  For also <they> stick badly here, indeed barely <sc. proper> Greek, and they speak most falsely; evidently, that <it had been> <sc. the task> of the high and of other priests, and of the levites to be fault-inspectors.--Bernard

     --"So much caution", says Philo the Jew <in> the beginning of the book "On Victims", "they used in this business, that the most upright of priests and the most expert, having begun from the ends <of> the feet diligently examined both visible <marks> and <those marks> which lay hidden upon the stomach and thighs, lest some light stain escape."  The same Philo in the book "On Agriculture" observes that also among the Gentiles <some> had been chosen who discharged this duty, and that these by several were called fault-inspectors.--Coustant[[F]]

81.  "penalty":  Hesychius <glosses>: "penalty", "fine".--Colomiès

82.  "See", etc.:  From here up to chapter 48, Clement of Alexandria omits all, nor acknowledges <it>.--Bernard.

My Notes
A.  I wonder if this citation is a typo, since it's not clear to me what Lev 11:6 has to do with vow offerings.

B.  Not quite sure to whom this is supposed to refer.

C.  I understand the latter half of the word to be derived from "phrassw"--to fence off/defend.

D.  I take the Greek "hoi" to be the subject of this clause, even though it seems odd to make it subject of the Latin verb "vocant".

E.  Although the overall sense of this portion seems clear, the grammar is awkward and suggests a minor corruption.

F.  Migne has "CONST.", but I think the N is a misprint for U.  I don't know who this would be otherwise.

Tuesday, May 27, 2014

PG001(col. 287-290): First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: Chapter 40.

(From the 1765 Venice edition of  André Galland's "Library of the Ancient Fathers", Tome 1, folio-size, p. 9)
Author:  André Galland

Googlebooks PDF: PG001

Chapter 40

These things, therefore, being manifest to us, <we> also <having curved in>[[70]] towards the depths of divine knowledge, all things <in order>[[71]] we ought to do, <as many as> the Master commande{d} to accomplish according to <the> appointed <opportune times>; <that> the offerings[[72]] and <public services> be accomplished, and <that they be> not <at random> or disorderly he commanded, but at the defined <opportune times>[[73]] and hours; where and by whom he wishes <them> to be accomplished, he himself defined by his highest counsel; so that hallowedly all the things happening[[74]] in approval, might be acceptable to his will.  They, therefore making their offerings at the appointed <opportune times>, <are> acceptable and blessed; for following the <prescriptions> of the Master, they do not sin.  For to the archpriest have been given[[75]] proper services, and to the priests the proper place has been assigned, and upon <the> levites lie proper <attendant services>; the layman[[76]] has been given to lay assignments.

70.  "having curved in":  <That> this is the genuine reading, however not "having curved out", as has Clement of Alexandria <in> "Miscellanies", book 4, chapter 16, page 613, Potter indicates.  Thus also below <at> chapter 53, "Curve in towards the sayings of God".  And Bois already earlier had seen it.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

71.  "all things in order, etc.":  The editions thus <punctuate> this passage: "all things--he commanded; according to <opportune times>, etc."  Wotton, however, punctuated as in Clement of Alexandria, whom here we also follow.  The same thing pleased Davies[[him???]] also.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

72.  "the offerings, etc.":  Those <words>, <with> the position of two words changed, Davies would prefer thus <to be read>: "The offerings and public services not at random or disorderly he commanded to be accomplished and to occur, but at the defined opportune times and hours".--The same <sc. Gallandi>

     --"offerings":  <It is sufficiently established that> "gifts, offerings", and <that> which comes back to the same <meaning>, "odor of sweet-smelling", are words received in the New Testament; but whether they are used through metaphor and rather charming twistings of figurative speech, or they were admitted completely from the common usage and received practice of the Church, <is to be investigated> more deeply.  And indeed if the <Apostolic> Canons, <section> 2, which hold forth the name of the apostles, <if> [<they had>] those or at least this Clement our (what is accustomed to be said by certain ones) author, no place for doubt would remain.  For the third canon thus says: "If a bishop or priest in violation of the arrangement of the Lord should <for the purpose of sacrifice> bring to the altar something other than honey, or milk, or fermented drink in place of wine, or birds, or other animals, or pulse in violation of the arrangement, let him be removed; except for new <unripe wheaten-groats> or a bunch of grapes in needful time", etc.  But since indeed about the trustworthiness of those canons it is doubted, it should be observed that in the first times not only on individual <Sundays>, in the assembly of Christians mandated by the divine Paul, a collection of money <on behalf> of the poor had been instituted; but also certain first-fruits were brought to the sacred table under the name of gift or oblation.  Hence more often in this epistle itself the mention of the offering; where also the bishops are described by this character and statement, that they are <ones having brought forth> the gifts[[A]].  In which sense the inspired Ignatius <of Antioch>, <with> Daillé the <old flogger>[[B]] of the holy Fathers not at all contradicting, said to the Smyrnaeans, that is was not allowed without a bishop "neither to baptize, nor to bring forth <offerings>, nor to carry forth a sacrifice".  Nor otherwise does Justin Martyr in the "Apology" <section> 2 with eloquent words name "offerings" both the elements applied to the Eucharist and destined for sending blessings to the absent.  But most openly of all Irenaeus, <in> book 4, chapter 39, follows up the whole matter: he says, "The Lord giving to his disciples the counsel to offer first-fruits to God from his creatures, not as <God being> needful, but that they themselves neither fruitless nor ungrateful, <etc.>", which he more frequently presses upon <in> chapters 33 and 34 and elsewhere here and there.  To which things the blessed Cyprian agrees <in> "On works and alms", which Augustine quite described <in> sermon 13 "On the times".  And on account of this cause, the word offerings so frequently occurs among the most ancient Father of the Church, especially where <it is treated> of the mysteries of the Eucharist, that even in the "Roman Missal", and in fact even in the solemn office of our Anglican Church <it> is even now retained. Of course, so that the most sacred mysteries of the Eucharist could totally be seen <as> the peaceful things or pacific, it was proper that he who effected sacred things, offered his resources to God, and when he took part of the same things, brought to the sacred table he became a table companion of the Godhead, and was able, so that I may use the words of the divine Paul, "to take part of the altar".  Furthermore, it should be adverted that that originally was not only of the Eucharist, but also of offerings a [<religious ceremony>], such that to be detained from it was held <as> a stage of banishment or excommunication; and accordingly among the sacred canons, especially the Ancyran, fellowship without offering used to be imposed <as> a mark of rather strict judgment and separation, howsoever this was <not quite> observed by learned men.  Since indeed it would result in the most grave penalty of inexpiable crime, if for someone that censure were prolonged after death, nor in the faith of conceded forgiveness were offerings received in the name of the deceased as if for restitution; so <sc. offerings> to be bestowed for God and for sacred <sc. rites> were held, <when> the Church was nascent, not <as> wasteful expense, but <as> privilege and gain.--Fell

     --There is someone who would that these <words> all be of a bad stamp, up to the end of the chapter, and <who> sends the reader off to Clement of Alexandria, page 518.  He says, you have the same things among the apostolic constitutions, as they are called.--Bernard

73. "defined opportune times":  "For all things a time is determined and an opportunity for all business under heaven", says the wise man <in> Ecclesiastes 3:1.  It is earnestly to be grieved, if the most unimportant duties of life have occasions prepared for themselves, that piety alone, in whose obedience life itself was given up, should be excluded from the boundaries of time.  In fact, the seventh day for the human race <since the creation of the world>, by the greatest, that is, his own command God wished <to be> sacred.  Whence after in the resurrection of the same <sc. God> he had instituted the new epoch of the reborn world, he granted it with the same privileges and the religion of the Lord's <sc. day> was made sacrosanct.  In fact also since indeed our Savior wished the piety of his own disciples to surpass the <virtuous actions> of the followers of Moses, among whom beyond the <established rites> of the Sabbath the second and fifth <day from the Sabbath> were held sacred, lest, as Maimonides says, <in> "Prayer and priests' blessing"[[C]], chapter 12, note 1, "<it> be ceased from hearing by a space of three days" (whence flowed the custom of fasting twice of the Sabbath, the mention of which <is in> Luke 18:12), <it> was suitable that at least with the same intervals, among <those who had professed> the Christian religion, they render sacred duties, which at any rate <was> done, of course, <with> days of fasts moved up to the fourth and sixth; which here and there from Tertullian we learn, and also from Clement of Alexandria, who <constantly calls> them "fourth and preparation" or "of Hermes and of Aphrodite"; although <it> is long from when the Roman Church departed from this most ancient practice.  In smaller intervals of time, the reasoning is completely similar; for those, which had been accepted in the Jewish Church, <sc. those> times not only by our Lord, but moreover by the apostles, we see <as> acknowledged, accordingly <in> Acts 3:1, "the hour of the <petitionary prayer>", for the purpose of established ritual, is said[[D]] in clear words to have led the divine Peter and John to the temple.  In the Synagogue, although it is advised by no law of prayer, on individual days three times of them <sc. prayer> would recur: "The three prayers are found on every day: evening and morning and afternoon," Maimonides <in the Book of the Strong> Hand, "On the Priests' prayer and blessing", chapter 1, <section> 8, which also <having been> received by the customs of the Christian church, Tertullian in the "Book on fasts", Cyprian "On Oratory", <and also> Jerome <in letters> to Laeta and to Demetrias forbid us to be ignorant of.  Not unjustly can be added to these <the fact that> the usage of the sacred hours was so outstanding towards promoting the purposes of piety, that Julian the Apostate, after he had <it> as <firmly ascertained> that the Christian faith could not be overcome by force and injuries, and he decreed that <it> be destroyed by imitation, he took care that "organized prayers of specified hours and days" be interspersed into his paganism, <as> Sozomen <testifies>, book 9, chapter 15, which also Apollonius of Tyana had done we learn from Philostratus <in> book 4, chapter 8, of his <sc. Apollonius's> Life.  That among the Turks the same custom prevails, no one is ignorant.--Fell

74.  "the things happening":  Thus <reads> the manuscript <according to> Wotton.  The editions all <unanimously> omit "the".--Gallandi

75.  "For to the archpriest have been given proper services":  Our apostolic <author, sc. Clement> would not so have praised the order and diverse duties of the pontiff, priests, levites, and laymen, if, <to the extent that> it pleases the heterodox, the Christian religion had abolished the pontificate, and had wished none to be the particular duty of the pontiff, which <duty> not also <were suitable> to priests <and> also to pontiffs themselves.  He praises, since <according to Jerome teaching> [<in book> 2 against Jovinian, <section> 15, and epistle 85], in both Testaments the pontiff has one order, the priests another, the levites another, and by the apostolic traditions descending from the old law, the bishops, presbyters, and deacons succeed Aaron and his sons and the levites.--Cotelier

76:  "layman":  No servitude is so <given over to>, so wretched, as <of the one being a slave> to supposition[[E]].  Otherwise, the most learned men Salmasius and Selden, that I may pass over other critics of lesser people given over to the sentiments of Calvin or Erastus, never so gravely  in the skill which they professed would have fallen, so that they endured to say that "presbyters were once laymen, and the word 'lay', insofar as it was <distinguished in opposition> to clergy, prevailed rather late in the Church".  I do not bring up the passages of Ignatius <of Antioch>, since indeed the innovators, when they are pressed by his authority, briefly extricate themselves by saying that he is <not genuine> or is interpolated.--Fell

My Notes
A.  The Greek verb "prosferw" and its various are under discussion here.  This word can be translated as "bring forth" or "offer".

B.  He is called "Orbilius", a literary reference to a strict schoolmaster of the poet Horace.

C.  The Hebrew title is transliterated here into Latin.

D.  Migne's text has "dictam est".  This seems to be a common error for "dictum est", possibly due to the similarity between lower-case "u" and "a".

E.  I'm not sure why this is in Greek.

Thursday, April 10, 2014

PG001(col. 285-288): First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: Chapter 39.

(From the 1765 Venice edition of  André Galland's "Library of the Ancient Fathers", Tome 1, folio-size, p. 9)
Author:  André Galland

Googlebooks PDF: PG001

Chapter 39

     <The> senseless and <without understanding> and stupid and uneducated scoff at us and sneer, wishing to elevate themselves with their thoughts.  For what is a mortal capable of?  or what is <the> strength of <the> earthborn?  for it has been written; "<There> was no form before my eyes; but rather I heard a breeze and a voice.  What then?  will a mortal not be pure before <the> Lord[[65]]?  or a man blameless from his works?  if he does not trust concerning his servants, and concerning his angels he conceived something crooked[[45b]], and heaven <is> not pure before him[[46b]]; but ha!  the <ones inhabiting> houses of clay[[66]], from whom we too are from the same clay; he struck them in the manner of a worm, and from dawn until dusk they no longer are; according to <their not being able> to help themselves, they perished; he breathed upon them, and they died, according to <their not having> wisdom[[47b]].  But invoke, if someone will respond to you, or if you will see one of <the> holy angels[[67]].  For wrath destroys <the> senseless; and envy deadens <the> <one who has strayed>.  But I have seen <the> senseless having taken roots, but[[68]] straightaway their mode of life was eaten.  Far may their sons be from salvation; [may they be crushed][[69]] upon the gates of <the> lesser, and <there> will not be the <one who removes> <them>; for what has been prepared for each, the just will eat; but they will not be removed from evils[[48b]]".

Biblical Citations
 45b.  Job 4:16-18

46b.  Job 15:15

47b.  Job 4:19-21

48b.  Job 5:1-5

65.  "before the Lord":  Thus <reads> the manuscript.  Thus also <reads> the Codex Alexandrinus <at> Job 5:17.  The Vaticanus, however, <reads>: "in front of the Lord". <Wotton's note>.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

66.  "but ha!  the ones inhabiting houses of clay":  Better is the Vulgate and Ambrosian[[A]] reading, "the ones inhabiting"[[B]], from which not without defect the word "ha!" is absent, as is clear from the Alexandrian manuscript.  What <this> "ha!" is, the sons of the grammarians teach, <and also> Polychronius <of Apamea> at Job 15:16.  Now, in the Catena of the book of Job, not yet published, but <in> a manuscript of the royal Library, at that <verse>: "but ha! man", <Job> 25:6, I found from the exposition of Olympiodorus[[C]]: "'But ha!', in place of, 'And [know well] and reckon about man'."  Chrysostom <writes in>, "On the Incomprehensible": "But ha!" (thus <it> totally is to be read, in place of which one Royal codex <reads> "if ", another <reads> "I allow") "the ones inhabiting houses of clay, from which we too are from" (the preposition is absent in 2 Kings[[D]]) "the same clay".  In <the writings of> Augustine, <in> the book "Notes on Job": "Now" (<variant>: also) "the ones inhabiting clay houses, of whom <there> is no <manner of life> in heaven, he strikes them like a worm".--Cotelier

67.  "you will see":  Thus <reads> the manuscript codex according to Wotton.  The editions, expect the London, <read>, "you will sii"[[E]].--Gallandi

68.  "having taken roots, but":  Thus <it reads> from the manuscript <according to> Wotton and the editions [<of Richard? Russell>].  Alternately, "taking roots, but"[[F]].--Gallandi

69.  "may they be crushed": That is, "may they be despised".  "A small pig"[[G]], [[Lat. Trans. Om.]], than which among the Jews nothing is more despised.--Colomiès

     --We read in Hesychius with <the letter alpha>[[H]], "<kalabristheiesan>",  which he translates "they were jeered at".  And also with <the letter omega>, which <resulting word> is explained by him as, "they were furnished with oars" and "[???]"[[I]].  See the things which were observed by Kuster in the Suda.--Wotton.

     --But Olympiodorus's scholion on this passage more pertains to the matter, which <scholion> <was> related by Lambert Bos in his publication of Greek Books: "<kolabristheiesan>, that is, may they be crushed, may they be thoroughly disparaged; for a <kolabros> is a small pig".--Gallandi

My Notes
A.  Not sure which "Ambrosian" manuscript this is.

B.  The difference is that this latter reading is in the accusative case, as opposed to the nominative.

C.  A 6th-Century deacon of Alexandria, whose commentary on Job we know of from the catena, apparently.

D.  This might be 2 Samuel, if "2 Reg." means 2nd book of Kingdoms.

E.  Common alternate spelling of the same word.

F.  It's not quite clear from the notes whose position is what.  The force of the variant is twofold: 1) a present participle instead of an aorist, and 2) an elided final vowel for "but" instead of the full word.

G.  The headword for the note is taken to be derived from this Greek word.

H.  That is, by changing the first letter omicron in the headword into an alpha.

I.  I found these citations in Hesychius, but it's not clear to me what these are supposed to mean.