Monday, August 11, 2014

PG001(col. 289-292): First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: Chapter 41.

(From the 1765 Venice edition of  André Galland's "Library of the Ancient Fathers", Tome 1, folio-size, p. 9)
Author:  André Galland

Googlebooks PDF: PG001

Chapter 41

Each of you, brothers, in his own order let render thanks to God, beginning in good conscience, not transgressing the bounded rule of his <public service>, in reverence.  Not everywhere, brothers, are offered sacrifices <of perpetuity>[[77]], or of prayers[[78]], or about sins and trespasses, but than[[79]] in Jerusalem alone; but even there not in every place is <it> offered, but in front of the temple at the altar, the offering <having been inspected for faults>[[80]] by the high-priest and the aforementioned <public ministers>.  Therefore, the <ones> doing anything beyond the consensus of his counsel, have death <as> the penalty[[81]].  See[[82]], brothers, insofar as we are deemed worthy of greater thought, so much more do we undergo danger.


30.  See Clement of Alexandria, "Miscellanies" <book> 1.
77.  Supply "according to the old law".  How meritlessly, however, several infer from here that that epistle was written before the destruction of the Jerusalem temple, I have made clear in a previous admonition.--Gallandi

78.  "of prayers":  Perhaps "of thanksgivings", says Young.  But besides that the sacrifices about which this discussion <treats> are not by the 70 Elders called "thanksgiving sacrifices", but "saving", <there is no need of change>: since even "prayers" are salutary sacrifices.  Those of course, <are> <things> which are offered from a vow, Leviticus 11:6[[A]].--Mill  

     <-->Wotton <prints a text> not otherwise.--Gallandi

79.  "but than":  Thus <reads> the manuscript <according to> Wotton.  "than" is absent from the editions.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

80.  "having been inspected for faults":  A word used by <Hellenists>[[B]] and gentiles.  Now, <it> was the office of fault-inspectors, as learned men have observed, to diligently inspect lest in way a defect lay hidden in victims to be sacrificed: which primarily among the Jews <was prevalent>, <with> God himself commanding, Leviticus 22:21,22.  The author of the Apostolic Constitutions <says in> book 2, chapter 3: "<Inspect for faults> the <one intending> to be appointed to priesthood": [[Lat. Trans. Om.]]; pointing a finger to Leviticus 21:17-21.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

     --"having been inspected for faults":  What <it> is to inspect for faults, or who were fault-inspectors, learned men have taught abundantly from gentile, Jewish, <and> Christian writers.  But those approvers of victims you will find called [calf-fencers][[C]] in book 4 of Porphyry's "On abstinence from animals".--Cotelier

     --"having been inspected for faults":  Priests not only of the Jews, but also of the gentiles, used to approve hosts and diligently inspect and examine the entrails of victims, before they <made offerings>, which they[[D]] call to test from outside and to examine the victims, whereas sacred writers <sc. call it> to inspect for faults.  Whence Philo the Jew <writes in> "On Agriculture": "For <it is> strange to take concern, on the one hand, of priests, that they will be perfect <with respect to> the body and complete, and of animals <dedicated to sacrifice>, that none <even> one <sc. mutilation> overall, but not <even> the slightest mutilation suffers, and [<that> <there is need that> some even so many][[E]] to put hand to this same work, whom some name 'fault-inspectors', so that the entrails may be brought forth to the altar faultless and unharmed", etc., where <one may> observe the rationale of the term, and that <it> was used infrequently before him <sc. Philo> and only by certain ones.  However <that> may be, <in> the book "On Sacrifices", and at the beginning of the tractate "On Sacrificers", he demonstrates that the highest care had been applied in selecting these fault-inspectors <according to nobility>, who with a careful examination the individual sacrifices and the individual parts would scrutinize "from the extremities of the feet however many <marks> are visible and however many <marks> may have been hidden on the stomach and thighs", lest some sort of defect, of corruption, of stain lay hidden.  Thus Clement of Alexandria in book 4 of "Miscellanies" <says>: "And there were even in the administrations of sacrifices by the law, the fault-inspectors of the entrails".  And Chrysostom in homily 20 on the Epistle to the Romans, about the our prior examination of body and mind before we undertake to approach the sacred assembly, thus writes: "Wherefore it is necessary in every way to fault-inspect our body.  For if the <ones offering up> the ancient sacrifices reviewed everything, and permitted to offer up neither <sc. an animal with> a cut ear, nor a docked tail, nor <one itching malignantly>, nor having <a mossy growth>; so much more <is it> necessary that we offering not reasonless sheep, but ourselves, exhibit more precision and be in every way pure", etc.  And <in> homily 17 on the Epistle to the Hebrews: "Because of this also the priest then declares the holy ones, calling and through this speech fault-inspecting all, so that one may not approach unprepared", etc. Lord <Andrew> Downes in his notes thinks that for "fault-inspecting" in this passage should be replaced "recalling", but I would prefer to retain "fault-inspecting", since Chrysostom looks back to that solemn word accustomed to be used in the primitive Church in <taking part> of the awesome mysteries.  "However many <are> in repentance, depart, all," and, "Depart <those who are not able> to be in  need".  See homily 3 of the same <sc. Chrysostom> on the Epistle to the Ephesians, and weigh diligently.--Young

     --These <words> from Clement of Alexandria, page 521, <section> B, <are> badly altered and expressed.  For also <they> stick badly here, indeed barely <sc. proper> Greek, and they speak most falsely; evidently, that <it had been> <sc. the task> of the high and of other priests, and of the levites to be fault-inspectors.--Bernard

     --"So much caution", says Philo the Jew <in> the beginning of the book "On Victims", "they used in this business, that the most upright of priests and the most expert, having begun from the ends <of> the feet diligently examined both visible <marks> and <those marks> which lay hidden upon the stomach and thighs, lest some light stain escape."  The same Philo in the book "On Agriculture" observes that also among the Gentiles <some> had been chosen who discharged this duty, and that these by several were called fault-inspectors.--Coustant[[F]]

81.  "penalty":  Hesychius <glosses>: "penalty", "fine".--Colomiès

82.  "See", etc.:  From here up to chapter 48, Clement of Alexandria omits all, nor acknowledges <it>.--Bernard.

My Notes
A.  I wonder if this citation is a typo, since it's not clear to me what Lev 11:6 has to do with vow offerings.

B.  Not quite sure to whom this is supposed to refer.

C.  I understand the latter half of the word to be derived from "phrassw"--to fence off/defend.

D.  I take the Greek "hoi" to be the subject of this clause, even though it seems odd to make it subject of the Latin verb "vocant".

E.  Although the overall sense of this portion seems clear, the grammar is awkward and suggests a minor corruption.

F.  Migne has "CONST.", but I think the N is a misprint for U.  I don't know who this would be otherwise.