Saturday, January 25, 2014

PG001(col. 281-284): First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: Chapter 37.

(From the 1765 Venice edition of  AndrĂ© Galland's "Library of the Ancient Fathers", Tome 1, folio-size, p. 9)
Author:  AndrĂ© Galland

Googlebooks PDF: PG001

Chapter 37

  Let us <serve as soldiers>, therefore, ma{le bro}thers, with all assiduousn{ess in}{his} blameless commands.  Let us consider <the ones who serve sold{i}ers> for o{ur}[[48]] orderly, how healthi{ly}[[49]], how submissively they accomp{li}sh the <things ordered>.  Not al{l} are prefects, nor tribunes, nor centurions, nor <prefects over fifty men>[[50]], nor <as follows>; but each in <his> own rank accomplishes the <things enjoined> by the king and the leaders.  The great without the small are not able to be, nor[[51]] the small without the great.  A certain combination is in all things, and among these a usefulness. Let us take our body; the head without the feet is nothing, thus neither the feet without the head; and the smallest members of our body are necessary and serviceable to the whole body; but everything[[52]] breathes together, and makes use of one subjection for <conserving the whole body>.

Biblical Citations
44b.  1 Corinthians 12:14, 27

48.  "for our leaders":  Fell would prefer, "their": thinking <it> foreign from the holy Fathers of the Church that they called military tribunes "<their own> leaders".  <Anton> Birr, interpreting the passage <as> about the Roman emperors, thus renders: "<serving as soldiers> for our princes" or "leaders".  Indeed, St. Clement earlier <in> chapter 5 employs the same word, "before the leaders", where Cotelier translates, "before princes", alternatively, "before emperors", of course, <as> Salmasius <explains>, "before Nero".--The same <sc. Gallandi>

     --I would read "their", for the holy Fathers of the Church more <were averse> to war, than they would endure to name their leaders as military tribunes.  By that <fact>, then, I more confidently interpose a conjecture, since the word "our", lacking in the exemplar because of a lacuna, from a conjecture which <lies open> equally to all, originally was restored by Young.--Fell

49. "How healthily":  Fell supports this reading and renders, "how strenuously, eagerly, actively."  Other prefer, "tractably", "how obediently".  Birr, however, approaching more nearly to the manuscript, <with> one letter inserted, reads, "tractatably"[[A]]; or if you prefer, "well-spirited-ly", "especially disposed-ly, especially eagerly".--Gallandi

     --"How healthily":  "How strenuously, eagerly, actively?"  Now, Young would prefer that "healthly"[[A]] should be read; but it is not at all necessary to change anything, for also by Plato <in> "On the laws" <the> "healthy" are demanded for the military.  Moreover, in fact, the in age and strength unimpaired of people everywhere <are> conscripted as soldiers, who elsewhere are called "young men", "children", "youths", "adolescents"; and for that reason, <with> thriving instruction, <with> the custom of the boxer, they were exercised towards "health" or the "acme of soundness"; whence the blessed Paul <in> 2 Timothy 2:4 commands: "<Endure suffering> like a noble soldier".--Fell

50.  "prefects over fifty men":  Cotelier translates, "prefects of fifty soldiers".  More simply, Wotton <renders>, "Fifty-ers".  Thus also Coustant, <with> Jerome preceding in Isaiah 3.  I confirm this translation from the Vulgate <as> translator <in> Exodus 18:21 : "And establish from them tribunes, and centurions, and <prefects over fifty men>, and decans."  Thus also <in> [verse] 25 <of Exodus 18>.  In Greek thus from the Vatican codex: "And you will establish over them" (Codex Alexandrinus <has>, "them over them") "tribunes and centurions and <prefects of fifty men> and decans."  Thus Deuteronomy 1:15.--Gallandi

     --"prefects, etc.":  Sufficiently piously and elegantly the Blesses Jerome <in book> 1 "against Jovinian", <chapter> 20 <says>: "In what manner in the legions and the army are there leaders, are there tribunes, are there centurions, are there light troops and light armor, and the common soldier, and maniples; <once> the battle <has begun>, the titles empty of dignities, and only strength is demanded: thus in this field and battle, where we contend against demons, titles are not demanded, but works; and more glorious <is> he under the true emperor Christ not who is nobler, but who is stronger.  And <in> book 2, chapter 15, he enumerates "emperors, prefects, counts, tribunes, centurions, maniples, and the remaining military order".  But at <Isaiah 3:3>, where the <Septuagint> has, "<prefects over fifty men>", he says: "For how <they> are called centurions, who preside over one hundred men, and chiliarchs, who <preside over> one thousand, <and those> whom we call tribunes, from the fact that they preside over a tribe: thus in the Israelite army <those> were called <fifty-ers>, who were at the head of fifty soldiers: whence also say call decans, who preside over ten men."  In Xenophon's "Education of Cyrus", book 8, a little after the beginning, decans, <leaders of armed bands>, chiliarchs, myriarchs, and a general are named.  See Exodus 18:21,25; Deuteronomy 1:15; 2 Kings 1:9, etc., and 1 Maccabees 3:55.--Cotelier

51. "nor":  Thus the manuscript.  But all the [imperial codices] <read>, "and not". [<Wotton's note>].--Gallandi

52. "but everything":  The reading is suspect to many[[B]].  Davies in place of "but" reads "at the same time".  But <it> seems nothing <is> to be changed, if we translate "but" <as>, "in fact", "since in fact", <or> "since rather".  Thus Luke 12:7, and Acts 19:2.  See, if you please, Schoettgen's "Lexicon of the New Testament", <headword>, "But".--The same <sc. Gallandi>

My Notes
A.  Note 49 concerns specific details of spelling and interpretation.  I've tried to reproduce the effect in English in order to mimic the possibility of intelligible alternate forms.  I haven't been able to find the forms suggested by Birr or Young in any lexicon; however, this by itself does not mean they are wrong.

B.  The perceived problem seems to be that the Greek "alla" is strongly adversative, but the ensuing words in fact confirms the immediately preceding statement.