Thursday, December 20, 2012

PG001(col. 229-231): First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: Chapter 11.

(From the 1765 Venice edition of  André Galland's "Library of the Ancient Fathers", Tome 1, folio-size, p. 9)
Author:  André Galland
Googlebooks PDF: PG001

Chapter 11

     Because of hospitality[[70]] and reverence Lot was saved from Sodom, <when> all the surrounding region <was judged>[[71]] through fire and brimstone; the Lord having made clear beforehand that he does not leave behind <those who hope> in him, but <those who are> <otherwise inclined>[[A]] he places in punishment and discomfort.   For <although> <his> wife <who had departed with him>[[73]] <was> <of other thought>[[A]] and not in agreement, <she> was <made> into this sign, such that <she> <became> a pillar of salt until this day[[74]]; <for the purpose that it> be known to all that the double-minded and the doubters about the power of God become a judgment and a sign for all generations.

70. "Because of hospitality": <See> Clement of Alexandria <in the cited passage>.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

71. "Judged": Others have thought that this world should be corrected, which <word> Wotton keenly observes and thus translates the whole passage: "When the entire region in the <surrounding area> <underwent> punishment by fire and brimstone".  Indeed, he also adds that the holy Father far from doubt looks back to 2 Peter 2:6, clearly a splendid testimony that that Epistle from the beginning onward was canonical and received by the Roman Church.  Leclerc approves the Wottonian opinion and copies <it> out.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

    --"When all the region was judged":  Lord Bois thinks that "was overthrown" should be read, <since> history and <word order>[[B]] <support> <this>, Genesis 19:25 : "And he overthrew these cities and all the surrounding region"; or "was burned down".  I think that the simple "was burned" should be substituted, and I followed that reading in <my> Latin translation; however, I do not deny that "was judged" can be retained, indeed even in a very broad sense, for "was burned down".  For "to judge" for "to condemn", and "judgment" for "condemnation", very often in the New Testament and in this writing are employed.  <The verse> 2 Peter 2:6 : "And he condemned the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah, burning <them> to ashes", seems to favor the first and last reading.  Now, regarding the desolation and sterility of that region, once most fertile and most pleasant, which followed the divine vengeance of crimes and of impiety and the fiery and sulfurous rain sent down from heaven, in <the writings of> Chrysostom, homily 8 on the first <epistle> to the Thessalonians, is a most elegant passage: which <it> will not displease to append here, in thanks of those for whom <it> will be not less pleasing to read these things than <it> was joyful for us first to note and to excerpt:  "Therefore indeed this <sc. region>, the <one> thus fertile and rivaling all the lands, the <one> outstripping in abundance the garden of God, is now emptier than all the deserts, and on the one hand trees stand and bear fruit, but on the other hand the fruit is a reminder of the wrath of God; for pomegranates (both the wood I say and the fruit) having radiant appearance, and providing to the ignorant all hopes; but if they should be taken into <the> hands, <when> broken in two no fruit, but dust and much ash they show stored away inside. Such also is the whole land; and if you search for stone, you will find <it> <has been burnt to ashes>; and why do I say rock, and wood, and land?  where even both air and water partook of the misfortune.  For just as <when> a body <was set on fire> and <was burnt up>, the shape <surely> remains, and the outline in the fire's appearance and <the> bulk, and the <bodily> proportion, but the power <is> no longer;  But thus <it> is there to see land, butt having nothing of land, but all ash; trees and fruits, but having nothing of trees nor fruits; air and water, but nothing of air nor water; in fact even these things <have been burnt to ash>."  Thus <writes> Tertullian in the "Apology": "A fiery rain demolished Sodom and Gomorrah; the land still smells of burning, and if anywhere in that place fruits of trees are perceived, <as far as> by the eyes, they notwithstanding turn to ash upon contact."  And the same <sc. Tertullian> <in> "On the <philosoper's> cloak": "Look to Palestine, where the river Jordan <is> arbiter of boundaries, an enormous wasteland, <it> is both a destitute region and a field in vain, and[[C]] cities formerly; and a dense populace," etc.--Young

     --Neither should "was judged" be changed against the reliability of the manuscript codex, nor should "was condemned" be interpreted, for no one would have said, "condemned through fire";  but this is the antecedent <used> in place of  the consequent, the judgment <used> in place of the punishment, and for that reason "was judged" is <used> just as "was punished".  Nothing is more frequent in Scripture than the words "I judge" for that which is "to punish", and "judgment" for that which is "punishment".   I marvel that the memory of this matter for learned men did not come to mind immediately.  Therefore, <it> should have been translated: When the whole "surrounding region" (of Jordan) "had undergone punishment by fire and sulfur"; not "burnt down", as Young <translates>, or "was condemned", as Cotelier <translates>.--Leclerc

72. "The Lord having made clear beforehand": Wotton would prefer, "Since the Lord had made clear beforehand"[[D]].  However, that this phrasing of the holy Father's is customary for the most Atticist writers, such that <it> should not be changed, Blackwall proves against his fellow-countryman in "The Authors of Sacred Classics Defended and Illustrated", tome 1, page 59; whom Davies follows.--Gallandi

73. "For <...> who had departed with him": Thus <reads> the manuscript from Wotton.  But Young along with the remaining <printed> editions, <with> "for" placed in the margin, exhibits "alongside"[[E]] in the text.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

74. "A pillar of salt until this day": That he has seen the statue, Josephus testifies <in> book 1, chapter 12 of "Antiquities", and <there is> much mention of it in <the writings of> Hebrew, Greek, and Latin authors.  Noteworthy is the testimony of Irenaeus <in> book 4 "Against Heresies", chapter 51: "Lot left his wife on the boundary, a statue of salt up to the present day."  And at the end of the chapter: "And when these things were done, the wife had remained in Sodom, already not corruptible flesh, but a statue of salt always remaining, and through those natural things which are the habit of man, showing that also the Church, which is the salt of the earth, is left below in the boundary of the earth, enduring things which are human: and while often whole limbs are taken away from it, the statue of salt perseveres, which is the support of faith, strengthening and sending forth sons to their own Father."  Which <remarks> would seem rather obscure, unless the verses of the poem entitled "Sodom", which finds place among the works of Tertullian and Cyprian, brought forth <light>:[[F]]

For, the companion spouse, woe is me, badly then also the law[[G]]
The woman not enduring, to the divine rumblings of heaven
<Her> daring eyes in vain <she> alone turned back;
Nor <would she be able> to say what she saw, and at once in that place
Changed into a fragile salt, <she> herself stood <as> a sepulcher,
And the very image conserving for itself the form without body
Persists still and indeed in an uncovered position under the sky,
Neither by the rains melted away in place, nor overthrown by the winds.
Indeed also if any foreigner might cut off the form,
Straightaway by provision from <its very self> <it> fills out the wounds.
It is said <that> even living now in another body, with her sex's
Habitual blood <she> <marks off the end to> bountiful months.

<See, if you please>, the same Irenaeus, chapter 64 of the same book, <and also> Prudentius's "The Origin of Sin" <at> verse 740 and following.--Cotelier

     --"Pillar of salt": Cyril of Jerusalem <in> the first mystigogical catechesis <writes>: "But the wife of this one <sc. Lot> has become a pillar of salt <exposed to public scorn> for eternity, having the <reputation> of wicked choice and relapse."  In contrast, Abraham "for the universe is established <as> a pillar of faith and obedience," as Basil says in the "Monastic Constitutions".--Young

     --Josephus, a writer of the same century with Clement, <in> book 1 of "Antiquities" from the reliability of <his own> eyes makes this very thing evident: "But I have investigated it <sc. the pillar>; for it still persists."  Lest we think which matter less probable, Tertullian assigns a very much wondrous explanation of its durability; evidently, that at constant intervals <it> is repaired, and "if any foreigner might cut off the form, by provision from its very self the wounds <it> straightaway fills out"[[H]], which, <when> in fact also blood <is poured out>, declares <its> origin and destruction.  Nor is <the matter> stopped here, but also writers of the present age (how rightly, let other judge) assert that this lively statue even now still remains, and as though built from its own salt.--Fell

     --But Colomiès sends us away to page 109 of his "Sacred Observations"[[I]].  See also the Dissertation of Jean Leclerc on the saline statue, where this tale <industriously> is weighed out.--<sc. Migne?>

My Notes
A.   Both of these words contain the prefix "hetero-", and the context clearly yields a negative sense; however, the precise force of the prefix is unclear.  For a stronger negative force, "heteroklines" may also mean "contrary", and "heterognomon" may mean "fickle".

B.  See note B here.

C.  Instead of "et" = "and", other editions read "at" = "but".  This seems preferable, and the error is easily accounted for by the juxtaposition of "est et".

D.  The text has a nominative subject with a nominative aorist participle.  As such, it lacks a main verb.  Wotton's solution is to shift both into the genitive to make the phrase a genitive absolute.

E. This emendation would change the text in the following ways: Remove the initial "For" and adding another explicit preposition "alongside" to the preposition "with" in the compound verb "having come out with".

F. The poem as a whole may be found in the volume on Tertullian in Migne's Patrologia Latina series.  Also, although the sense seems clear enough, the first two lines contain some unresolved corruptions.  See the critical apparatus here.

G. The genitive "legis" seems to be the object of the participle "patiens".

H.  Fell clearly paraphrases the words of the poem.

I.  I don't know what he says there.  But if I look it up, I'll put it here.

Thursday, December 13, 2012

PG001(col. 227-230): First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: Chapter 10.

(From the 1765 Venice edition of  André Galland's "Library of the Ancient Fathers", Tome 1, folio-size, p. 9)

Author:  André Galland

Googlebooks PDF: PG001

Chapter 10

     Abraham, called the friend[[67]][[71b]], was found faithful in <that> he <became> obedient to the words of God.  He through obedience went out from his land, and from his kindred, and from the house of his father, so that having abandoned little land, weak kindred, and a small house[[68]], he would inherit the promises of God.  For he says to him: "Go away from your land, and from your kindred, and from the house of your father, to the land which I shall show to you; and I will make you into a great people, and I will bless you, and I will magnify your name, and you will be blessed; and I will bless those blessing you, and I will curse those cursing you; and all the tribes of the land will be blessed[[69]] in you"[[72b]].  And again <when> he <went away> from Lot, God said to him: "Having looked up with your eyes, look away from the place where now you are, towards north, and south, and east, and the sea; because all the land which you see, to you I will give it, and to your seed until eternity.  And I will make your seed as the sand  of the land;[[A]] if someone is able to count out the sand of the land, also your seed he will count out"[[73b]].  And again he says: "God led out Abraham and said to him: 'Look up to heaven and count the stars, if you are able to count them out, thus will be your seed'.  But Abraham trusted God, and it was considered of him <as> justice"[[74b]].  Because of trust and hospitality a son was given to him in old age[[75b]], and through obedience he led him forth[[76b]] <as> a sacrifice to God at one of the mountains which he indicated to him.

Biblical Citations
71b. 2 Chronicles 20:7; Judith 8:22; in the Latin translation of Isaiah 41:8; James 2:23

72b. Genesis 12:1,2,3

73b. Genesis 13:14,15,16

74b. Genesis 15:5,6

75b. Genesis 21

76b. Genesis 22

67."Abraham <...> the friend": Add with Young <the words>, "of God".  Thus also <writes> Clement of Alexandria <in the cited passage> <when> copying out these words.  However, Davies[[?]] read: "Abraham, God's friend", thinking that from the <abbreviated> word "GD" easily flowed "the"[[B]].  See below, chapter 17.--Gallandi

     "Abraham, called the friend":  Perhaps, "of God", should be added, as <it> is <in> James 2:23, "and was called friend of God".--Young

68. This <means>, which completely depended upon few.  For to Abraham were only two brothers, Aran and Nachor.  But Aran had already died, <with his> son Lot having been abandoned.  And so with Lot, from this stock remained Nachor and Abraham, who indeed on account of the sterility of Sarah lacked sons.--Coustant

69. "And <...> will be blessed": Thus <reads> the manuscript, as <in> the Septuagint.  Thus also <print> the remaining editions beyond Leclerc and Coustant, where "and" is omitted.--Gallandi

My Notes
A. One of Migne's editions has the wrong text in the line after this point.  In fact, it duplicates the text of the half-line just below it.  Even in the printed age we have the same "scribal" errors.

B. A common abbreviation for the word "theou", meaning "of God", would have been the two letters theta and upsilon.  In the uncial (i.e., square capital letter) script prevalent around the 3rd-4th centuries, the capital theta may have been confused for a capital omicron, which would just be the word "the", with the upsilon having somehow dropped out.

Saturday, December 1, 2012

PG001(col. 227-228): First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: Chapter 9.

(From the 1765 Venice edition of  André Galland's "Library of the Ancient Fathers", Tome 1, folio-size, p. 9)
Author:  André Galland
Googlebooks PDF: PG001

Chapter 9

     For this reason let us submit[[61]] to his magnificent and glorious counsel, and becoming supplicants of his mercy and goodness, let us fall prostrate and <turn ourselves> towards his pities, having abandoned vain laboring[[62]], and wrath, and the <thing> leading to death <, namely,> envy[[63]][[68b]].  Let us look intently[[64]] at <the ones who have> perfectly <performed public service> to his magnificent glory.  Let us take Enoch[[69b]][[A]], who, found just in obedience, was transported, and his death was not found.  Noah[[70b]], found faithful, through his <public service> heralded regeneration to the world[[66]], and through him the Lord preserved the animals <which has come> in concord into the ark.

Biblical (and other) Citations
68b. Clement of Alexandria, "Miscellanies", book 4, page 516 abundantly touches upon the following <passages>.

69b. Genesis 5:24, Sirach 44:16, Hebrews 11:5

70b. Genesis 6:8; 7:1, Sirach 44:17, Hebrews 11:7, 1 Peter 3:20, 2 Peter 2:5

61. "Let us submit": Wotton testifies that this is the manuscript's true reading.  Thus also read Mill and Grabe, which word the holy Father clearly uses <in> chapter 7 and 10 <and> rather often elsewhere.  The <printed> editions all <unanimously> followed Young <by printing>, "Let us listen".--The same <sc. Cotelier>

     "For this reason let us submit": Lord Bois advised that "let us submit" should be read, to whose conjecture I myself willingly subscribe, although sometimes "to listen" is employed for "to submit", as <in> Isaiah 45: "to subject the gentiles before him"[[C]], and in the Septuagint it is found joined to the third case[[D]], but with a different meaning, as <in> Proverbs 15:32[[E]]: "But he hears the prayers of the just", and <in> Genesis 16:11 : "Because the Lord heard your abasement".--Young

62.  "Vain laboring":  Perhaps <it should be emended to>, "vain speaking"--The same <sc. Young>

63. "And the <thing> leading...<, namely,> envy": Read, "And envy <which leads>..."[[F]].  The holy Father earlier, <in> chapter 3 and 5, takes the word "envy" <in> the masculine gender, as is <right>, although a copyist throughout <almost all of> this Epistle has expressed the same word <in> the neuter gender, as observed by Mill and Wotton.[[G]]

64. "Let us look intently", etc.: Compare these things with Clement of Alexandria, page 516, "Miscellanies", book 4, from the words, "Therefore, let us look intently at <the ones who have> perfectly <performed public service>", etc., and you will recognize, pious reader, with me that from that <sc. the "Miscellanies> <this> sweetest epistle was interpolated, and that the the interpolator diligently took care that it was long more than "great and wondrous", by which praises Eusebius adorns it.--Edward Bernard

65. By which evidently through baptism we are reborn.  That the ark by which Noah was saved was a symbols of the same regeneration, also is noted <in> 1 Peter 3:20.--Coustant

66.  "Heralded regeneration to the world": The regeneration that is accomplished through the bath of baptism, <with> the holy Spirit operating, should not be understood by the word "regeneration" in this passage, but <what should be understood is> the restoration of the human race and the new generation:  and in this sense <in the writings of> Philo the Jew and others it is found.  Also, the passage of Matthew 19:28, "in the regeneration", thus should be interpreted.  Evidently, when heaven, earth, and sea have passed away, as is <written in> Revelation 21, also <he> who sits in the throne will create all things new, "new heaven, new earth, and new everything".--Young

My Notes
A.  Given the recently discovered support for the importance of the figure of Enoch in Judaism around the time of Christ (cf. Enoch Seminar), the fact that Clement mentions Enoch as a prime example for the faithful may be an argument in favor of the both the genuineness and early date of this epistle.

B.  The material in book 4, chapter 17, of the Stromata ("Miscellanies") appears to quote extensively from this point of the epistle onward.  This raises the question of what in the Stromata is original and what has been added by Clement of Alexandria or a later writer.

C. The verb translated as "to subject" in Isaiah is "epakousai", which is a form of the word earlier (and normally) translated as "to listen/hear".  Young says that this is an example of "epakousai" being used for "hupakousai", but he seems to be mistaken.  "Hupakousai" normally means "to submit", and it appears never to denote any dominant/aggressive action such as subjection.  Young's argument is not clear, but it seems to rely partially upon the difference in case of the direct object of these verbs in the various examples he gives (cf. note D below).
D. "Joined to the third case" appears to mean that the direct object of the verb is in the dative case.  In the Isaiah passage, the direct object was in the accusative.

E.  This appears to be verse 29 in modern editions.

F.  The proposed change alters the case of the article and the participle, so the full phrase could be rendered, "and envy, which leads to death".

G.  This note is not attributed to anyone.  Perhaps it is an erroneous omission, or perhaps it is Migne's own?