Saturday, July 27, 2013

PG001(col. 269-270): First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: Chapter 29.

(From the 1765 Venice edition of  André Galland's "Library of the Ancient Fathers", Tome 1, folio-size, p. 9)
Author:  André Galland

Googlebooks PDF: PG001

Chapter 29

Let us approach, therefore, to him in holiness of soul, "raising hands pure"[[17b]] and undefiled toward him, loving our fair and compassionate Father, who made for himself a portion of choice[[94]].  For thus it has been written, "When the Highest distributed[[95]] the peoples, as he scattered[[96]] <the> sons <of> Adam, he established boundaries of peoples according to <the> number of angels of God[[97]].  Became a portion of the Lord his people Jacob, <an> allotment of his inheritance Israel"[[18b]].  And in another place he says: "Behold, the Lord takes to himself a people from the midst of peoples, just as man[[98]] takes his first-fruits of the threshing-floor, and the Holy of holies will come out of that people"[[19b]].

Biblical Citations
17b.  I Timothy 2:8

18b.  Deuteronomy 32:8,9

19b.  Deuteronomy 4:34 ; Numbers 18:27 ; II Chronicles 31:14

94.  "who <...> of choice":  Some think <this> reading is defective, and they insert <the word> "us" or "the peoples".  However, Davies seems to me to have touched the matter <accurately> with a needle, who with a slight change rewrites, "whom <...> of choice", so that it is referred back to the word "us".--Gallandi

95.  "distributed":  Thus <reads> the manuscript according to Wotton, thus also <reads> the London edition.  Others <print>, "disdributed"[[A]].The same <sc. Gallandi>

96.  "scattered":  Thus <reads> the manuscript as in the Septuagint, for which true reading thrown back into the margin, Young with the editions substituted that <reading> in the text, "and he sowed". <Wotton's note>.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

97.  "of God":  This word is absent <in> the [imperial codices], if you except the London, which <word> however exists in the manuscript and the Septuagint <exhibits> <it>.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

98.  "just as man takes":  Frey rightly observed that Clement formed this passage both from Numbers 18:27 and from II Chronicles 31:14, where is read: "To give the first-fruits of the Lord, and the Holy of holies".  Such that the meaning is: God for himself from the remaining men separated us, and made <us> a portion of choice, as from the threshing-floor is plucked out the first-fruit sacred to God, which becomes the Holy of holies.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

My Notes
A.  Alternate Greek spelling of the same word.

Tuesday, July 23, 2013

PG001(col. 267-270): First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: Chapter 28.

(From the 1765 Venice edition of  André Galland's "Library of the Ancient Fathers", Tome 1, folio-size, p. 9)
Author:  André Galland

Googlebooks PDF: PG001

Chapter 28

All things, therefore, being seen and being heard[[87]], let us fear him, and let us abandon foul desires of vain works, so that with his mercy we are sheltered[[88]] from the future judgments.  For where[[89]] can any of us flee from his powerful hand?  And what kind of world will receive one of <those deserting>[[90]] from him?  For somewhere the Scripture[[91]] says, "Where will I arrive[[92]], where will I be hidden from your face?  If I should go up to heaven, you are there; if I should go away to the ends of the earth, there <is> your right hand; if [<I should spread down>] into the abysses[[93]], there <is> your spirit"[[16b]].  To where, therefore, should one go, or where should one flee away from the <one who encompasses> everything?

Biblical Citations
16b.  Psalm 138:7-10

87.  "being heard":  From Bois, "by him", should be inferred.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

88.  "we are sheltered":  From the manuscript Wotton restored this reading, which Young with the edition except the London placed in the margin, the other <reading> "we shelter" <having been introduced> into the text.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

89.  "Where...flee":  Thus <reads> the manuscript.  Others prefer, "To where": and they exhibit, "flee"[[A]].--The same <sc. Gallandi>

90.  "deserting":  Hesychius <defines>: "Deserter. The <one who has gone away> to the enemies, betrayer".  In translating this word the great Casaubon sinned, <at> Polybius, book 4, page 322, where he translates, "but the deserter", <as> Automolus, as if it were a proper name.  But Polybius <means to refer to> a certain Aetolian deserter, whom he previously had mentioned, as advised Henri Valois, the equal, if not in certain things superior, to Casaubon, [<in the Preface>] on excerpts from the <collected works> of Constantine Porphyrogenitus.--Colomiès

91.  "For somewhere the Scripture says":  Rightly the Psalter is presented with the name of Scripture: since indeed, as we learn from St. Epiphanius, heresy 29, chapter 7; and <from> St. Jerome in the "Helmeted Prologue"[[B]], and in the preface to <the book of> Daniel, the sacred Scriptures of the Old Testament are distributed into <the categories of> law-giving or law, prophets, and writings: <that is> in the books of Moses or the Law, the Prophets, and <the sacred-writings>: and in the third category is contained the book of David <i.e., Book of Psalms>.  Certainly at Luke 24:44 you have the Psalms <mentioned as> distinct from the Law and the Prophets: "<It> is necessary that everything which is written about me in the Law of Moses, and the Prophets, and the Psalms be fulfilled."  And the most preeminent Jews, Philo and Josephus, agree with the evangelist: <the former, i.e., Philo> <in> "Book on the contemplative life", after the beginning, page 893; <the latter, i.e., Josephus> <in> book 1 "Against Apion", similarly after the beginning, page 1036.  Sometimes, however, the psalms are not numbered among scriptures and <sacred-writings>, according to other divisions of Scripture; certainly, at Epiphanius's chapter 4, of the book "On weights and measures", and that copyist's of John the Damascene chapter 18, book 4 "On the orthodox faith"; likewise Cassiodorus's book 1 of "Institution for divine readings"; and also Jerome's in the prefaces to "Tobit" and "Judith".  For since he <sc. Jerome> in the above cited "<helmeted> Prologue", from the canonical books of the Hebrews, <i.e.> the books of the Law, of the Prophets, and the sacred-writings, and among these last the Psalter, separated the volumes of Tobit and of Judith, the same two volumes, in prefaces to them, he hands down that by the Hebrews <they were cut off> from the catalog of divine Scriptures, and <are read> among the sacred-writings, whose authority is judged <as> less suitable towards <confirming> those things which come into contention.  By which fact it happens that the Hebrews should be said to have had sacred-writings of twofold kind, evidently of greater and of lesser authority, and among the former <insofar as this matter is concerned> with the sacred Scriptures to have placed the Psalms.  Nor will you wonder at the diverse acceptance and authority of the sacred-writings after you have read those distinguished <sc. words> on the canonical books in <the writings of> the blessed Augustine, <in> book 2 "On Christian Teaching", chapter 8: "Now, in the canonical Scriptures, let <him> follow the authority of several catholic Churches; among which clearly are those which have merited to have apostolic seats and to accept Epistles.  And so <he> will have this manner in the canonical Scriptures, so that those which are accepted by all catholic Churches, he may place before those <which certain ones> they do not accept.  But among those which are not accepted by all, let <him> place those which the more numerous and more weighty <sc. churches> accept, before those which the fewer and of lesser authority Churches hold.  Now, if <he> should find some by more numerous, others by more weighty <sc. churches> to be had; although he might not easily find this, nevertheless I think they should be <considered> of equal authority".--Cotelier

     --From here <it is evident> that the most distinguished Isaac Vossius in response to Richard Simon's repeated objections undeservedly considered the word "scripture" to have been invented by Aquila.  From here also is confirmed Epiphanius's passage <in> heresy 29, section 7, where treating about the Nazareans, he says that the sacred-writing books are called "scriptures" by the Jews.  After Epiphanius, the Damascene hands down the same.--Colomiès

92.  "will I arrive":  The word <is> suspect to several; but Mill observes that it was used by Plato <in book> 7 "On the Republic", and it means the same as "I will arrive"[[C]].--Gallandi

93.  "if I should spread down":  Thus Clement best expressed the force of the Hebrew word, "he spread out", which means "he spread"[[D]].  For neither does he always follow the translation of the 70, but sometimes prefers either his own or <that> of other [teachers <learned in Hebrew>].  The Hebrew truth sounds in Latin: "If I will have made a blanket", or, "I will have placed a blanket in the abyss", or, "in the sepulcher."  And thus in Greek: "If I should spread down into the abyss".  [<This note taken from> Bois].--Gallandi

     --"if I should spread down into the abysses":  Thus Job 17:13 : "And in darkness my bedding lies spread[[E]]", and indeed the word "to spread down" in this passage closely approaches to the Hebrew source.--Young

My Notes
A.  A difference of one letter distinguished the aorist infinitive in the text from the suggested present infinitive. The aorist likely indicates the completed act of having initiated an escape, whereas the present likely indicates the ongoing act of fleeing.  There may not have been much of a recognized distinction in colloquial speech.

B.  The prologue known specifically by this name is to Jerome's Vulgate translation of the book of Kings.  More generally, a defensive prologue to a potentially controversial work was metaphorically said to be "helmeted".

C.  The topic here is the genuineness of a rare word that appears in the text.

D.  The topic here is Clement's translations of a particular metaphor, but more generally that his translation of these lines differs significantly from what we have in the Septuagint, which follows the Masoretic text.

E.  Perfect middle of stornumi.

Monday, July 15, 2013

PG001(col. 267-268): First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: Chapter 27.

(From the 1765 Venice edition of  André Galland's "Library of the Ancient Fathers", Tome 1, folio-size, p. 9)
Author:  André Galland

Googlebooks PDF: PG001

Chapter 27

By this hope, therefore, let our souls be bound to the <one> faithful in promises and to the <one> just in judgments; The <one who has commanded> not to lie, much more he himself will not lie; for nothing <is> impossible for God, except lying.  Therefore, let his faith be rekindled in us, and let us think that everything is close to him.  In a word of his greatness he organized everything, and in a word he can overturn it.  "Who will say to him, What did you do?  Or who will stand against the power of his strength"[[12-13b]]; when he wills, and how he wills, he will do[[85]] everything, and none of the <things that have been decreed> by him <at all will> pass away[[14b]].  Everything is in front of him, and nothing <has escaped the notice of> his counsel.  If "the heavens[[86]] are telling <the> glory of God, and the firmament announces <the> work of his hands; <one> day to <another> day bellows a word, and night to night announces knowledge; and <there> are no words, nor discussions, of which their voices are not heard"[[15b]].

Biblical Citations
12-13b. Wisdom 12:12

14b.  Matthew 24:35

15b. Psalm 18:1-4

85.  "he will do":  Thus <reads> the manuscript <according to> Mill and Wotton.  But Young with the editions <prints>, "he did".  Which reading [of another manuscript] indeed Wotton thinks should be preferred, and <that> for "pass away" should be read "passed away".  But <there> is <no reason> why we should disturb the manuscript's reading, since "he will do" rightly fits the <word> "pass away"[[A]].  "When he wills and how he wills, he will do everything; nor will anything decreed by him pass away."  Thus <renders> Frey.--Gallandi

86.  "If the heavens": Davies conjectured that, "and the heavens", should be read.--The same<sc. Gallandi>

My Notes
A.  The issue here is that the manuscript's reading for the verb "pass away" is in the aorist subjunctive which seems to have a prohibitive force due to the "me".  Since the protasis contains a future verb, the context suggests giving the aorist subjunctive a future sense.

Sunday, July 14, 2013

PG001(col. 265-266): First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: Chapter 26.

(From the 1765 Venice edition of  André Galland's "Library of the Ancient Fathers", Tome 1, folio-size, p. 9)
Author:  André Galland
Googlebooks PDF: PG001

Chapter 26

Great and wondrous, therefore, do we consider <it> to be, if the demiurge of all things[[83]] will make a resurrection of the <one having done service> piously to him in confidence of good faith, where also through a bird he shows to us the magnificence of his gospel?  For somewhere he {s}ays: "And you will raise me up, a{nd} <I will make grateful acknowledgments> to you"[[9b]]  {A}nd: "I lay down and slept; I r{o}se up because you are with me"[[10b]]. {And} again Job says: "And you will raise up[[84]] {--} this my flesh, which <has endured> all these things"[[11b]].

Biblical Citations
9b. Psalm 17:50

10b. Psalm 3:6

11b. Job 19:25,26

83.  "of all things":  The manuscript <reads> thus.  The editions, except the London, <print> "of everything"[[A]].--The same <sc. Gallandi>

84.  "you will raise up":  Blessed Clement first drew this passage to the resurrection, whom others later followed.  But who from those first Christians, [greater than <their> era], would demand a full explanation of all passages of Scripture?  Who [among the many] would think that they and their <descendants> not rightly <hallucinated>?--Colomiès

My Notes
A.  There is no major distinction in the meaning of the forms "pas" and "hapas"  for "all/every" in Greek.  The latter is properly emphatic, though.

PG001(col. 261-266): First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: Chapter 25.

(From the 1765 Venice edition of  André Galland's "Library of the Ancient Fathers", Tome 1, folio-size, p. 9)
Author:  André Galland

Googlebooks PDF: PG001

Chapter 25

{Let} us {see} the incredible sign, the <one {having occurred}> in the eastern {pl}aces, that is, the <ones> about Arabia.  For a bird <there> is, which is called phoenix[[79]]; this <bird> <uniquely> existing lives five hundred years; and it being already at <the> release of dying[[80]], makes a nest for itself from frankincense and myrrh and the remaining <aromatic herbs>, into which, the time being fulfilled, it enters and dies.  And <while> the flesh <is> rotting, a certain worm is produced, which, raised up from the moisture of the animal <that has died>, grows wings; then, becoming <strong>, <it> lifts that nest, where the bones of the <one that existed before> are, and carrying them, <it> bends away[[81]] from the Arabian land until Egypt, into the city called Heliopolis; and by day[[82]], <with> all looking, flying up it places them upon the altar of the Sun, and thus to back <from where it came> <it> goes off.  Therefore, the priests examine the records of the times, and find that it has come <when> five-hundred years <have been fulfilled>.

79.  "For a bird there is, which is called phoenix":  No other tale is reported in whose explanation writers more agree and more disagree.  Almost all agree in the <literal matter>, <but> disagree about the manner <of interpretation>.  And in fact <it> is the custom <of> the Fathers to use the example of the phoenix, some towards morals, some towards mysteries <such as> the virgin birth and the <Lord's> and our resurrection.  <It> is brought by others against false dogmas, in <the writings of> Augustine, book 4, "On the Soul and its Origen", chapter 20; and in <the writings of> Maximus, cited in the Euthymius's Panoply, part 2, title 15, page 607, and in the Notes of Hoeschel on codex 126 of the Photian "Library".  But <it is> amazing that to all Christians <it> did not smell <of> fraud on account of the paganism mixed into the story.  Now, since "phoenix" in Greek signifies both a unique bird and a palm-tree, from this it is done that [the text of David's psalm] 91, <verse> 13, "<The> just will flourish like a phoenix", is accepted by most <as> about a palm-tree, <but> by Tertullian in "Book on the resurrection of the flesh", chapter 13, and by Epiphanius in chapter 11 of "Physiologue"[[A]] <as> about a bird.  From here also <it> happens that Ezekiel the poet, in the drama entitled "Exodus", after he treated of the seventy palm-trees <in> Exodus 15:27, he appended a meeting <with> and description of the phoenix, in verses which Eusebius's "Evangelical Preparation", book 9, chapter 29, and Eustathius's Commentary on "The Six Days"[[B]], page 25, 26, contain; and <it happens> that the author of the song on the phoenix, attributed to Lactantius, gave place to the palm-tree in his fiction; <and> finally <it happens> that by reason of etymology some have deduced the tree from the bird, <and> some the bird from the tree:  about which should bee seen, beyond the just mentioned poet, Pliny, "<Natural> History", book 13, chapter 4, and Isidore, "Origins"[[C]], book 17, chapter 7, and book 13, chapter 7.  Furthermore, the <little narrative> of the phoenix in the later editions of Jerome is defective, and thus from the old Lyonnaise <manuscript> should be called back to former wholeness, by rewriting in this manner: "The phoenix is a bird in India, and <after> five hundred years <it> fills itself with <aromatic herbs> from <Syria> and thus <makes a nest>.  And <it> indicates to the Heliopolitan priest <in> the month of Famenoth or Farmuth.  The priest fills the altar with twigs, and there the phoenix brings <aromatic herbs>, and places <amber-colored metal> in the altar.  And at the first rise of the sun, the phoenix indeed moves <its> feathers, but by the heat of the sun the <amber-colored metal> is ignited, and thus the <aromatic herbs> are burned up, and the phoenix itself is set aflame.  On the following day, from the ash is generated a worm, second, it brings forth feathers, third, it returns to <its> former nature: and thus to its own places it returns."  The passage is had in the Epistle, or rather after the Epistle to Praesidius, regarding the Paschal <candle>.--Cotelier

     "For a bird there is, which is called phoenix":  Regarding the phoenix, a <much-chattered-about> bird, and a symbol of the resurrection, many <people have said> many <things>, the Greek and Latin Fathers, historians, and philosophers, with restrained and loose speech.  Now, Maximus, against the dogmas of Severus, <in a letter> to Peter the Illustrious[[D]] tries to demonstrate <as> a fable <the things> which are told about it, and he contends that no animal is "unique, nor does any of the bodies" (as he says) "<which> <in the course of> generation and destruction <are> animate and perceptive begin according to a unique origin of nature.  Of which things the succession from each other according to form, is a conspicuous mark and definition of being."  I, although uncertain are things which are reported about this bird, and augmented with fabulous <things> (as <does> Tacitus <in> book 4 of "Annals"), nevertheless that <there> is a winged <animal> of such a kind, which is restored by the renewed humor of its flesh, and rises from its <own> pyre, and is heir of its <own> body and produce of its <own> ash, and which <situation> also in Egypt is sometimes seen; with that I do not dispute: and I prefer with our Clement, as apostolic man, Tertullian, Origen, Cyril of Jerusalem, Eusebius, <Gregory> Nazianzen, Epiphanius, Synesius, Jerome, Ambrose, Lactantius, Pliny, Seneca, Mela, Solinus, Philostratus, Libanius, and others, to err; than to follow Maximus and the opinion of his followers, who measure the almighty power of the demiurge with the feebleness of human reason, and circumscribe the lord of subservient nature.  Now, against Maximus I oppose Origen, who <in> book 4 "Against Celsus", asserts that this can be done according to nature; his words <are> thus: "<It is possible for> even it to occur <as> natural, the divine providence <having abundantly provided>, and among the differences of animals <it is possible> to set before men the <dazzlingly variegated quality> of the <preparatory furnishing> of the <things> in the cosmos, <which quality> applying even to birds; and <it sc. divine providence> <brought into existence> some unique animal, so that even with this he might make be admired not the animal, but the <one who has made> it."  And to this most full and most firm (so that I might use the words of Tertullian) example of the resurrection, from Methodius also [of the newest day] I add a not dissimilar sign and lesson in nature: evidently, the ["pyragnum"] plant, which <when> <mount> Olympus <is burning> thrives and blooms in the <midst of the flames>, as if it were planted next to a downflow of waters; but <it is preferable> to hear him himself, who was an eyewitness of this miracle.[[E]]  "I saw on Olympus <for myself> a fire spontaneously throughout the ridge of the mountain from below sent up from the ground; around which is a "pyragnus" plant, on the one hand so flourishing and verdant, but on the other hand so <thickly shaded>, as <though> below a stream" <<perhaps 'upon a stream'>> "rather it has sprouted forth; through what cause, therefore, if <its> substances are of destructible and by fire [consumed] bodies, does this plant not only not burn up, but rather <more vigorously> exists, if <in its substance> <it> is <easily burned> and [these <things occur>] <when> the fire <is smouldering> around its very roots?  Then at least, branches of trees from the adjacent wood I threw along whichever place the fire belched forth, and straightaway taken up into flame <they were burnt to ashes>.  What, therefore, <does> this contradiction <mean>?  God placed this <as> an indication and introduction of the coming day, so that we may know that <when> everything by fire <is rained down upon>, the bodies persisting in purity and justice will step upon fire just as upon cold water."[[F]] But to the skilled [initiates] of nature I relinquish these things' hidden causes to be carefully investigated, and with Cyril of Alexandria, about the whale which by the command of God devoured Jonah, making words I conclude this passage: "We say, therefore, that <as> a contradiction truly and beyond both reason and <habitual acquaintance> we might suitably consider the <chance event>; but if God <could be said> to accomplish <it>, who yet <will be a disbeliever>?  For the divine is almighty, and easily <remodels> the natures of beings towards whatever indeed <it> <might choose>, and against his ineffable breaths nothing <is> <that which leads out against>; for the <thing which has grown> to be corrupted might become stronger even than deterioration <when he wishes>, and the <thing which has been fixed> and <is> unshaken and <is> disagreeable to the laws of deterioration, might easily suffer deterioration; for nature, I think, for beings <is> <what seems best> to the founder."  But while we write these things, a by far pernicious notice is brought to here regarding the fall of an incomparable hero and most warlike king, indeed the August Gustavus, phoenix of this century; whose excellent deeds the eternal honor of chronicles will celebrate: we are able not unsuitably to lament his alas too sudden and for the Christian world premature death (if true are <the things> which <are becoming widespread> through sad rumor) <with> a comparison taken up from the phoenix and <with> the words of Libanius <on> the murder of a vigorous warrior, but by far dissimilar leader; if any words avail sufficiently to express so great and so calamitous a loss of so great a leader:[[G]] "He departed, on the one hand, having tasted the <civilized world> of the good, but not <sufficiently having achieved> to satiate <himself>;  but we have experienced as if it is at hand for the phoenix bird on the one hand to extend <its> flight though the whole land, but to stand in no place, neither of countries nor of cities; for thus dim has become for men the appearance of <that> bird; and now what blessedness he rendered, he ran through as though winged": unless God, the best and greatest, having had mercy upon his church,from his ashes should raise up another new and revived phoenix for his laboring people; so that he might do which thing, we will not cease to importune with assiduous and ardent prayers.  May it happen, may it happen.--Young

     Photius in the "Library", according to the irritable nature of critics, ascribes <as a fault> to our author that he here has made words about the phoenix.  However, he could have remembered that in sacred writings, at least from the <opinion> of the 70 translators, Jerome, and other translators, animals are recounted not more unknown by the experts <in> natural history and philosophy, than this Assyrian bird, <">which <as> heir of its own body and product of <its own> ashes is asserted to be restored by the renewed humor of its own flesh and to rise up again from the funeral pyre<">[[H]]; there also are rendered  jackals, satyrs, dragons, lilith, wild goat, bearded vulture, lion, goat-stags, griffins, ant-lions, fauns, satyrs, sirens, <and> lamias.[[I]].  But in fact, <it> deserves a disquisition whether express mention about the phoenix is had in Sacred Scripture, of course, <in> the book of Job, chapter 29, <verse> 18, where it says: "I will die with my nest, and like sand I will multiply <my> days"[[J]].  <Rendered in Latin as:> "I will die in my nest and like the phoenix I will multiply <my> days".  The most ancient authors among the Hebrews, the book of Zohar, the Talmud in tractate Sanhedrin, Bereshith Rabbah, the book of Yalkut[[K]], <and> Rabbi Shlomo Yarchi in commentary at this passage clearly are of this opinion.  And in fact, in the Masorah <it> is specifically noted this this word, "sand", means something other than <what it means> usually, about which Jerome <writes> in the epistle "To Praesidius".  But also from a certain Masoretic note [which is read <as> added to certain manuscript Bibles <and> by which <note> <it> is set forth that <sc. this word> is found twice and that it <is found> in two meanings], <it> follows that in <the book of> Job <it> means phoenix, while <in> Genesis 22:17 <it> means sand.  Furthermore, Rabbi David Kimhi says that he found the word "CH-W-L"[[L]] with Shurek[[M]], so that it means phoenix, in a corrected Jerusalem book.  In fact, the 70 elders thus rendered these words, "My lifetime will grow old like a root of a phoenix", where phoenix is a homonym and expresses palm-tree no less that phoenix.  But since indeed nowhere is <it> known that "CH-W-L"[[L]] denotes a palm-tree, <it> comes to be thought whether truly unbelievable is <the word> "the root" placed here [in <the writings of> them <sc. Septuagint translators>] in that meaning, for which stock and pedigree in almost all [dialects] are employed throughout.  If which thing is done, the 70 Translators themselves completely acknowledged the phoenix.  But yet if <it> is added [<as> a support to the passage], that especially praised authors, some sacred, some profane, of course, Herodotus, Tacitus, Dio, Plutarch, Pliny, Seneca, Mela, Solinus, Philostratus, Libanius, Tertullian, Origen, Cyril of Jerusalem, Eusebius, <Gregory> Nazianzen, Epiphanius, Synesius, Jerome, Ambrose, Lactantius, Bede, etc., such that <I might be silent about> the race of poets and pass over writers of a lesser era, were of the same opinion; <it> should seem not at all amazing (howsoever Bochart may think otherwise) that the most learned Young [determined to himself with so many signs to err, especially in a matter where <one is mistaken> without injury, <rather than> by acceding to promoters of the contrary opinion indeed to think rightly].  Certainly although Cornelius Tacitus, with whom agree the remaining historians of that century, eloquently says: "<When> Paulus Fabius and Lucius Vitellius <were> consuls, after a long period of centuries, the phoenix bird <came> to Egypt, and <provided> to the most learned of the native <peoples> and of the Greeks the material of discussing many things about that miracle"; not at all is <it> to be thought that he blathered a mere lie and a pure, clear fable; especially since <it is established> sufficiently how much the evil demon once [would leap upon] the superstition and ignorance of wretched men, and [how much <it> was <for his benefit> <at> that time, when the splendor of the Gospel began to greet the <world> with life-giving rays, to conciliate his very self to some noteworthy fiction.]  And indeed <he> who had manifested himself as "prince of the air"[[N]] through the ministries of birds and the universal apparatus of augural knowledge, and who had consecrated with the solemn talking-marvel of birds those most celebrated <oracles> of the Dodonian Jove among the Greeks, and the oracles of Amun among the Egyptians, about which matter Herodotus, among others, in <Book 2 of the Histories>[[O]] can be consulted, will not appear to have acted absurdly, if he tried to establish <as> sacred his own judgments, <with> the <wondrous sign> at Heliopolis <having been> called back, which long ago had inspired the souls of men, and had been able <to solemnly bind> the most ready faith to itself: no wonder that after a certain long interval, a bird of certainly unusual form, [at least by color], if not to be called phoenix even by the old nomenclature, showed its very self; in order that I use the words of Tacitus, "which <bird>, <with> a weight of myrrh <having been taken up>, and <it having been tested> through a long journey <what place> is equal to the burden <and> equal to the travel, conveyed its bundle to the altar of the son and <burned it in worship>"[[P]]; and by that plainly miraculous <ceremonial service>, no less than by <public spectacle>, added honor to the altars.  Certainly that <wondrous sign>, which gave courage to Tarquinius Priscus, such that he lay hold of <commanding authority> among the Romans, so that I may pass over other things mentioned by Livy, [seems to draw much from <i.e. be founded upon> this <sc. story of the phoenix?> for him, <and also> to bear a torch <i.e. guide> for him.  But if these things less satisfy, it could be said that the phoenix's history  is <considered> among all as conceded, and therefore <it> most rightly <is serviceable> to an argument led against the men <"ad hominem">; for it reports nothing, by which arms we may strike down an enemy; nor less happily will error be disproved by an admitted error, than by truth produced in <public> do trust and contract approach to truth.][[Q]]  Nor otherwise does the blessed Paul seem, when in this business he dwells among those judges (I understand <them to be> Corinthians), to have recounted <in service of> his cause  a usage equally improbable <as> this history of the phoenix, <namely,> baptism for the dead, so that thence he confirmed the resurrection.--Fell

     About the phoenix we have no more ancient testimony than that which exists in the "Chinese History" of Martini, a man most worthy of trust,  under the emperor Xoarro IV[[R]]: "Near the beginning of the empire, the bird of the Sun appeared, by whose coming they commonly consider that happiness is portended for the kingdom.  From <its> form, by which they depict this bird, you would believe <it to be> an eagle, if the wonderful and colorful variety of feathers did not oppose.  That I suspect <it> to be the phoenix, its rarity persuades."  You may read the same things in the verses of Ezekiel the Tragedian, <as cited> in Eusebius, "Preparation for the Gospel", book 9, and Eustathius in the "Six Days".--Colomiès

80.  "at the release of dying": Bois advise <that it> should be read, "at the release and moment of dying". Which Epiphanius thus expressed: "<Inasmuch as> it might know the impending moment of its death", and Ambrose: "Which <bird> when <it> has noticed the end of life is near to itself,"  and Tacitus: "<When> indeed the number of years <is> accomplished, when death approaches, in its lands <it constructs> a nest," etc.--Young

81.  "bends away from":  Alternately, swims across, or finishes, that is, it is carried with one outset <and> flies direct<ly> to Egypt.  But Wotton changes nothing: for he thinks, following Hesychius, that the word "bends away", that is, "turns" or "circles" (bends from Arabian land to Egypt) most aptly suits this passage.--Gallandi

82. "and by day":  If you hear Leclerc, "and through day<-time>" <should be> read.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

My Notes
A.  This work is apparently not by Epiphanius.

B.  This work is apparently not by Eustathius

C.  Also known as the "Etymologies", i.e., true origins.

D.  A governor of Numidia

E.  A bracketed note here indicates the following passage is cited from: Photius, "Library", page 623, Schott's edition

F.  A bracketed note here indicates comments on this section by Colomiès: "Perhaps <sc. "pryagnus"> should be read separately <as> 'pure fire'.  Thus certainly <read> Henri Estienne and his son-in-law Casaubon.  Whom Vitruvius appears to favor <in> book 8, chapter 3.  Thus, indeed, he <writes>: 'In Thessaly is a fountain flowing forth, from which fountain no cattle tastes, at which fountain nearby is a tree flowering with purple color.'  For as Vitruvius twice repeats the word 'fountain', thus could Methodius repeat the word 'fire'.--Colomiès"

G.  There appear to be some problems with the text of the following quote.  I have translated what appears in Migne, but later critical text have minor variants and emendations.

H.  This appears to be a quotation, since it's in italics in Migne.  It has some verbal echoes with a sermons of Ambrose on the Resurreciton, but I can't seem to find a direct quote.  It's possible it's a grammatical paraphrase.

I.  Although some of the words in this list denote fantastic animals, there appears to be some uncertainty as to the real animals referred to.

J.  The word order printed in Migne seems jumbled--not surprisingly, given the difficulty of managing Left to Right line breaks when the text reads Right to Left.

K.  As there are several such named books, I'm not sure which one Fell is referring to.

L.  Since this deals with the interpretation of this group of consonants (Heth, Waw, Lamed), I've transliterated here.

M.  This is the name of a Hebrew vowel.  One interpretation of the word in note [[L]] is that the letter Waw may be vocalized as a Shurek.  Different vocalizations of the same consonants result in different words.

N.  Cf. Ephesians 2:2

O.  Each individual book of Herodotus's Histories traditionally is given the name of a muse.  Book 2 is named Euterpe.

P.  This seems to be a mild paraphrase of Tacitus, in whose text the phrase "sarcinam suam" does not appear.

Q.  I'm not quite sure of the preceding translation, so I've bracketed it.

R.  My best conjecture is that this is this emperor.  I'm not sure what the roman numeral 4 is doing there, though.