Monday, September 2, 2013

PG001(col. 279-282): First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: Chapter 36.

(From the 1765 Venice edition of  André Galland's "Library of the Ancient Fathers", Tome 1, folio-size, p. 9)
Author:  André Galland

Googlebooks PDF: PG001

Chapter 36

This is the way, beloved, in which we find our salvation, Jesus Christ, the archpriest of our oblations, the defender and helper of our infirmity[[38_39b]].  Through this one <let us look attentively>[[43]] towards the heights of the heavens; through this one we reflect the blameless and supreme face of him; through this one the eyes of our heart were opened; through this one our ignorant and obscured understanding blooms towards his wonderful light[[44]]; through this one the Master wished us to taste immortal  knowledge; "who being radiance[[45]] of his majesty, by that much is he greater than the angels, by how much he has inherited a more excellent name"[[40b]].  For <it> has been written thus; "The <one making> the angels his spirits, and his ministers a flame of fire"[[41b]].  And to his son thus said the Master, "You are my son, I have engendered you today; you will ask from me and I will give to you people <as> your inheritance, a{nd} <as> your {poss}ession the boundaries of t{he earth}"[[42b]].  And again he says to h{im, "Sit} from my <right hands>, until {I place} your enemies <as> a stoo{l of} your {fee}t"[[43b]].  Therefore, who <are> the {hated of <the> Lord[[46]]}?  The depraved and {ones}marshal{ed} against[[47]] the will the wil...of God.

Biblical (& other) Citations
38_39b.  Photius, codex 126 of the "Library".

40b.  Wisdom 7:26 ; Hebrews 1:3,4

41b.  Psalm 103:4 ; Hebrews 1:7

42b.  Psalm 2:7,8 ; Hebrews 1:5

42b.  Psalm 109:1 ; Hebrews 1:13

43.  "Let us look attentively":  Thus clearly <reads> the manuscript, as the editions have: but, "we look attentively", should be read.  For presently the same manuscript exhibits, "we reflect", where the editions bear before themselves, "let us reflect".  <Wotton's note>.--Gallandi

44.  "Through this one...blooms":  Clement of Alexandria recites these words, "Miscellanies", book 4, chapter 16, page 613, where the distinguished Potter learnedly defends the word, "blooms", against Young disturbing it.  In the same opinion preceded Bois and Fell, with whom thenceforth Wotton agreed.  Thus <reads> psalm 27:7 : "And my flesh bloomed."  Thus also Philippians 4:10 : "But I rejoiced greatly in <the> Lord, because by now at last you made bloom <being concerned> on my behalf."  See, if you please, <Henricus> Svicerus in the "Ecclesiastical Thesaurus", see "I bloom".  Otherwise, the holy Father seems to have looked back to Romans 1:21 and 1 Peter 2:9.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

     --Perhaps "looks up at" or "examines carefully", that is, diligently and attentively contemplates: or rather the whole passage is thus to be read: "Through this one, in our ignorant and obscured understanding his wonderful light blooms", where with the Pauline phrasing he calls to Romans 1:21 : "ignorant" and "obscured understanding".--Young

45.  "who being radiance":  These <words are> from the Epistle to the Hebrews, and from the first chapter in almost the same words are taken, whence, also from other passages, "<the> similarity of character of speech and of thoughts", as Eusebius says, between this <epistle> of Clement's and the Epistle to the Hebrews easily is evident.--The same <sc. Young>

46.  "hated of the Lord":  Young with the editions <prints>, "his", in place of, "of <the> Lord".  That the manuscript's gap admits at most two letters, Wotton is witness, who consequently thinks that in it had been, "LD"[[A]], that is "of <the> Lord" : for thus that word is perpetually written in the same place.--Gallandi

47.  "ones marshaled against, etc.":  The editions <print> thus: "{ones}marshal{ed} against {God's}will, {his own} will,"[[B]] against the reliability of the manuscript codex, which thus <reads>:"{ONES}MARSHAL{ED} AGAINST THE WILL THE WIL...<of> GD"[[C]].  Hence, Wotton, removing the <second> "will", as overflowing with a librarian's laziness, thus reads: "{ones}marshal{ed} against the will {o}f God".  Davies <reads> otherwise.  <Anton> Birr marvels that Wotton here abandoned the codex. And so he himself thus restored this passage: "{ones}marshal{ed} against {their}will, {his own} will," or, "{ones}marshal{ed} against {their}will, the wil{l of} God".  Of course, he conjectures that <the word> "their", written with a brief mark, had been there overlooked by a librarian.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

My Notes
A.  The Greek "KY" with a line over it indicating an abbreviation is for the word "KYPIOY".  I have tried to render this phenomenon in English.

B.  This version changes the second article's omega to an omicron.  It's not possible to render this alteration into English.

C.  The manuscript is written in capital letters, and it uses a two letter abbreviation for the genitive case for, "God's".  This sort of abbreviation usually bears an line over it, but I can't reproduce that here.

Thursday, August 22, 2013

PG001(col. 277-280): First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: Chapter 35.

(From the 1765 Venice edition of  André Galland's "Library of the Ancient Fathers", Tome 1, folio-size, p. 9)
Author:  André Galland

Googlebooks PDF: PG001

Chapter 35

How blessed and wonderful <are> the gifts of God, beloved; life in immortality, splendor in justice, truth in frankness, faith in trust, continence in holiness, and all these things fall under our intellect.  What, therefore, are the <things prepared> for the <one who abide>?  The demiurge and all-holy father of the ages himself knows their quantity and beauty.  Therefore, let us struggle to be found in the number of the <ones abiding> him, so that we may partake of the promised gifts.  But how will this be, beloved?  If our understanding[[30]] of trust[[31]] towards God has been fixed, if we seek out <what is> pleasing and acceptable to him, if we accomplish <what appertains> to his blameless will, and follow the way of truth, having thrown off from ourselves all injustice and lawlessness, avarice, hatreds, bad habits and deceits, gossipings and slanders, god-hatred, pride and boasting, vanity[[32]] and hospitality[[33]].  For the <ones who do>[[34]] these things are hateful to God; "and not only[[35]] the <ones who do> them, but also the <ones consenting> to them"[[36b]].  For the Scripture says, "But to the sinner said God, 'Why do you recount my <just deeds>, and take up my testament upon your mouth?  But you hated discipline, and would throw away[[36]] my words <behind>.  If you saw a thief, you ran with[[37]] him, and with adulterers you would place your portion.  Your mouth abounded <with> evil, and your tongue entangled deceit[[38]].  <While> seated you would condemn your brother, and against the son of your mother you would place an obstacle.  You did these things and I was silent; you would suppose, lawless one[[39]], that I will be similar to you.  I will refute you, and I will place you against your face[[40]].  Indeed, understand these things, <you> the <ones who forget> God,  lest ever he seize like a lion[[41]], and <there> not be a rescuer.  A sacrifice of praise will honor me, and there a way which I will indicate to him <is> the salvation of God[[42]]'"[[37b]].

Biblical Citations
36b.  Romans 1:32

37b.  Psalm 49:16-23

30.  "understanding":  The articles "the", which the manuscript exhibits, is absent from the imperial codices[[A]]. <Wotton's note>.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

31.  "of trust":  Either "by trust" should be read with Wotton, or with others "through <trust>" should be supplied.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

32.  "vanity":  <Anton> Birr conjectures that the holy Father wrote "new-opinion", and wished to indicate zeal of novel opinions. He confirms the conjecture from <the fact> that in the manuscript codex, <with> Wotton as witness, it most often occurs that "e" is placed for "ai".  Thus in the previous chapter is read "encourages" for "encourages"[[B]].  Thus elsewhere here and there.--Gallandi

33.  "hospitality":  A faulty reading from context.  Therefore, others thus restore, "love of honor".  Others, "love of vanity".  Others, "inhospitality"; and this they add from Romans 1:31, to which they judge the holy Father looked back, and that the apostle's word, "pitiless" had been rendered, "inhospitable".  But Birr, rejecting "inhospitality" as a still completely new word, contends that "love of glory" should be read.  However, Cyril of Alexandria has "to be inhospitable" according to <Johann Henricus> Svicerus in the "<Ecclesiastical> Thesaurus".--The same <sc. Gallandi>

34.  "For the ones who do these things":  These <words are> almost verbatim in Paul to the Romans <in> the first chapter and <in> the last verse.--Young

35.  "not only, etc.": From this Mill argues both in the "Prolegomena to the New Testament", numbers 147, 447, and at the final division <in> chapter 1 <of> the Epistle to the Romans, that our holy Father thus read <at> Romans 1:32 : "But not only the <ones who do>, but also the <ones who consent> to the <ones who do>", as indeed read the Vulgate translator.  To Mill adhere Wotton at <this passage> and Wettstein in his "New Testament" published <in> Greek at Romans 1:32.  To these recently has acceded the learned man  <Hermann> Goldhagen from the Society of Jesus in "Apologetic gleanings" at the "Newest edition of the catholic Greek New Testament".  Against this opinion, however, opposes Whitby in "Examination of variant readings", book 2, chapter 1, section 1, note 16.--Gallandi

36.  "you would throw away":  Thus <reads> the manuscript; the editions <print>, "you threw away".--The same <sc. Gallandi>

37.  "you ran with him":  Mill testifies that "him" exists in the manuscript.  Thus also in the Septuagint.  But nevertheless <it> is absent from all editions, not even the Wottonian excepted: which I marvel at.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

38.  "deceit":  Thus <reads> the manuscript according to Wotton.  But the imperial codices except for the London <read>, "deceits".--The same <sc. Gallandi>

39.  "lawless one":  The imperial codices <read>, "lawlessness", as in the Septuagint.  But the manuscript <reads>, "lawless won", where far from doubt <it> should be read, "lawless one", <with> "ai" placed for "e"[[B]].  Thus read also Clement of Alexandria <in> "Miscellanies", book 4, chapter 24, page 634.  The Syriac and Arabic Vulgates agree, although the Hebrew text and Jerome's translation acknowledge neither "lawless one" nor "lawlessness".  <Wotton's note>.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

40.  "I will place you against your face":  About this text I think thus.  The 70 elders had written, "I will place before your face".  But since that seems obscure, from the preceding words of the Psalmist, for the sake of explanation, someone placed the pronoun "you" in the margin, <whereas> another one <placed> the words "your sins".  And from here later on the librarians, as <it> pleased, either wrote out the genuine text, or inserted "you" [[Lat. Trans. Om.]], or appended "your sins" [[Lat. Trans. Om.]].  The Gloss in the "Golden Catena on the Psalms" embraces the Clementine reading; also the Apollinarius[[C]] cited by the arranger of another "Golden Catena" on the 50 earlier psalms, where you will read with inverted order: "I will refute you, and I will place against you your face."  Likewise, Eligius <in> homily 8.  Saint Augustine exhibits and translates the same <reading> in an explication on this psalm forty-nine.  The translation of which is found excerpted in the commentaries which <are usually> <attributed> to Rufinus of Aquilea.  By Faustus in <the writings of> Canisius, tome 5, part 2, page 421, <it> is thus quoted: "I will refute you, and I will place it" (I write 'them') "before your face."  Let one see the same Basil in psalm 37.  "Let him sit daily in the tribunal of his own mind, and let his place himself before his own face," from "Rules for Solitaries", chapter 24.--Cotelier

41.  "like a lion":  <This> most ancient, as you see, <explanatory reading> <is> transferred to here from another psalm, namely, 7:2.  <It is present> also in <the writings of> the blessed Augustine: and yet a vestige of it appears in the Explanations of Chrysostom, Theodoret, and Arnobius.  Now, what is lacking from their text seems to have started out from the established either carelessness or deceit of the copiers, while either they copy out from memory <and> not from a codex, or they <desire eagerly> to represent the reading common to their age.  And on account of this last <reason> perhaps the "Catena on the Psalms" made <common property>[[D]] by Balthasar Cordier brings forth a deformed translation of Theodoret, whereas the royal Library's manuscripts of the "Catena" in no manner differ from the printed Theodoret.--The same <sc. Cotelier>

42.  "there a way which I will indicate to him is the salvation of God": Chrysostom, Jerome, Theodoret, the Catena, and certain Psalters of the Library of the Most Christian king[[E]] preserve, "which".  But Euthymius[[F]] puts forth, "according to which".  Whose Greek <words> from the same Library I bring forth: "But some of the copies write, 'which I will indicate'.  And the <version>, 'according to which', is perceived.  But some, punctuating after the, 'I will indicate', say, 'it <is> my salvation'".--The same <sc. Cotelier>

My Notes
A.  The article is is Migne's text, but it doesn't make sense to translate it into English.

B.  It's not possible to render these spelling variants in English.

C.  Not sure which one.  Perhaps him?

D.  I presume this means that he translated them from Greek.

E.  This seems to refer to the king of France.

F.  Migne, Pat. Gr. 128, col. 549,550.  

Sunday, August 18, 2013

PG001(col. 275-278): First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: Chapter 34.

(From the 1765 Venice edition of  André Galland's "Library of the Ancient Fathers", Tome 1, folio-size, p. 9)
Author:  André Galland

Googlebooks PDF: PG001

Chapter 34

The good worker with <free action> takes the break of his work; the sluggish and remiss does not look his work-provider in the face.  Therefore, it is necessary that we be eager towards beneficence; for from him[[23]] is everything.  For he proclaims to us: "Behold the Lord, and his reward <is> before him[[31b]], to render to each according to his work[[24]]"[[32b]].  Therefore, he urges us from <the> whole heart towards <it/him>[[25]], not to be idle nor slack in every good work.  Let our boast and outspokenness be in this; let us be subjected to his will.  Let us comprehend the entire multitude of his angels, how <being present> they minister to his will.  For the Scripture says: "Countless ten-thousands <were present> to him, and a thousand thousands were ministering to him[[26]]"[[33b]].  "And they were crying out, 'Holy, holy, holy, Lord sabaoth, all the creation[[27]] <is> full of his glory'"[[34b]].  And we, therefore, having been gathered together in agreement upon the same, <by mutual knowledge>[[28]] as from one mouth let us cry out to him earnestly, to <the purpose of> us <becoming> participants of his great and glorious promises.  For he says, "Eye did not see, and ear did not hear, and upon <the> hear of man did not ascend how many things he prepared[[29]] for those awaiting him"[[35b]].

Biblical Citations
32b.  Isaiah 40:10 ; 62:11

33b.  Psalm 61:13

34b.  Daniel 7:10

35b.   1 Corinthians 2:9

23.  "from him":  That is, from the work-provider, evidently, God.  Thus <interprets> Bois.  To whom Wotton seems to accede.  For he thus translates: "For from him are all things".--The same <sc. Gallandi>

24.  "Behold the Lord, and his reward is before him, to render to each according to his work":  <Cf. the epistle> of Barnabas, chapter 21: "Near <is> the Lord, and his reward".  In the apostolic Constitutions, book 2, chapter 14, and in the interpolated Ignatius, "Epistle to the Smyrnaeans", chapter 9: "Look, man and his work before his face"[[A]].  The same <apostolic> Constitutions, book 3, chapter 43, <have>: "Behold, man and his work": to which words are appended those in the "Questions" of Anastasius edited by Gretser, question 22: "And will you not render to each according to his works".  Clement <of Alexandria> <in> the <"Miscellanies">, book 4, page 528, <writes>: "For <it> has been said: 'Behold <the> Lord, and his reward from his face, to render to each according to his works."  From Origen, homily 35 "on Luke": "And then <it> will be completed: 'Behold man, his works before his face'."  And <in> tome 16, "on John": "Behold <the> Lord, and his reward in his hand, to render to each according to his work.Basil on psalm 32:18 : "Behold <the> Lord, and his reward" (thus the Greek edition with three Royal manuscripts of great antiquity) "to render to each as to his work.Chrysostom <in> Convocation 2 "On Lazarus", tome 5: "For behold, he says, man and his works."  In pseudo-Chrysostom or the author of the "Incomplete work on Matthew", at chapter 3, verse 12: "Behold man and his works." Saint Ambrose on <psalm 118:82>, octave 11, says: "And so the Prophet was deficient <regarding> the word.  And we think ourselves idle if we seem <to be zealous> merely for the word; and of more we appraise those who work, than those who exercise the zeal of knowing truth.  For very many say: 'Behold man and his works, as though he who is zealous for the word does not work', etc."  Finally, Valentinus and the monks who <were> with him <in> the epistle to saint Augustine, <number> 256 among the epistles of that doctor: "Because the Lord will come, and his reward <will be> with him: because man will stand and his work" (commonly badly <transmitted as> 'body') "<will be> before him."  All took from the passages of Scripture of Isaiah 40:10 ; 62:11 ; Revelation 22:12 ; Psalm 61:13.--Cotelier

25.  "towards it/him":  Bois adds "<towards> trusting <him>", relying upon Proverbs 3:5.  Others <emend to>, "to it".  Davies boldly <emends to>, "towards the not <being idle>, etc."  However, Wotton, sticking to the manuscript, thus renders: "By urging he turns us towards it/him with the whole heart." For in that manner, he says, we read in Aeschines, "to urge towards our friendship": [[Lat. Trans. Om.]].--Gallandi

26.  "Let us comprehend the entire multitude of his angels, how <being present> they minister to his will.  For the Scripture says: 'Countless ten-thousands <were present> to him, and a thousand thousands were ministering to him'":  Two things here come to be observed.One, that all angels <stand ready> and minister, accord to the teaching of many: to which seem to fit both divine testimonies, Genesis 3:24; Tobit 12:14,15; Psalm 103:4; Isaiah 6:2, etc.; Luke 1:19; and Hebrews 1:7,14 : and the opinions of the Holy Fathers: Minucius Felix says, "Sosthenes bestows both the true God with merited majesty, <and> also the angels, that is, the ministers and heralds of God, even the true <God>, and to his veneration he recognizes that <they> <stand ready>."  Didymus <in> book 1 "On the holy Spirit", from the translation of Jerome, before the end[[B]], adds those <words> at Hebrews 1:7 : "For although all invisible creatures were not sent individually, nevertheless because other of the same type and honor were sent, in a certain manner even they were sent [with power], the companions of the ones sent, and of equal substance."[[C]]  In <the writings of> the same Jerome, epistle 142[[D]]: "A certain one of the Greeks especially learned in the Scriptures expounded that the Seraphim a certain virtues in the heavens, which, assisting before the tribunal of God, praise him and are sent in diverse ministries, and most of all to those who are in need of purification, and on account of previous sins from some part deserve to be purified with punishments."  And in the same epistle the angels are called by Jerome, "the whole heavenly ministry", and, "attendant virtues in heavenly things"; in which manner to the Damascene the angel is "God's defender and minister", <in> oration 3 <in defense of> sacred icons.  The author of the Commentaries on the Epistle to the Hebrews, among the Words of saint Ambrose, at verse 7, chapter 1, <says>, "For not only angels does <he> signify with this word, but all virtues discharging supernal ministries."  And later, "<It> can be said that when they are sent to announce light" (read 'mild')[[E]] "things, <they> are angels; when they are sent for punishment, <they> are ministers, that is, burning fire."  Which things, at last, agree with the just cited <passage> from Jerome, and with these from the same <sc. Jerome> in <the writings of> Sedulius at Hebrews 1:7 : "Twofold is the office of the angels: for they minister either the spirit of consolation or the fire of punishment for men"; likewise equally with those <words of Jerome>, in psalm 103: "As in some they pour in the light of truth, in others they consume sins"; and <with> those at the passage of Daniel: "Twofold is the office of the angels; of some who deliver rewards to the just; of others who preside over individual torments"; unless if the final word should be changed into "cities", from saint Thomas[[F]] at the same <passage of the> prophet: "For not the good, but the bad angels are appointed to torments," says the [often cited] Jerome near the end of book 9 of the Commentaries "on Ezekiel".  The same <sc. Jerome>, explicating the first two verses of chapter 6 of Micah: "Others think the mountains, hills, and valleys <indicate> angels: who either serve God in heaven; or preside over men upon this earth; or established among <those below>, are said <to be> the foundations of those who <as> terrestrial ones stood out by their sin ."  Consult regarding the assistance and ministry of the angels Pope Gregory <in> homily 34 on the Gospels, Primasius at Hebrews 1:14, and Isidore of Spain <in> the book "On the order of creatures", chapter 2, tome 1 of Acherian "Gleanings".  And so less verisimilitudinous is made the opinion of Dionysius, contending in the word "On the celestial hierarchy" that only the superior angels assist God, and only the inferiors are sent to human ministries: and also the contrary opinion of Theodoret at Daniel 7:16, considering that the more worthy of the angels not only are present, but also minister, <whereas> the remaining merely are present.  I would believe, guided mostly by sacred utterances, that all orders of angels discharge the offices of assisting and ministering; but nevertheless that certain of the angels more often pursue either duty; such that the lesser in dignity and number are sent more and serve our affairs, bur the greater and more numerous more frequently assist near God, and among these are few who most rarely of all cease from assisting.  The other thing which offers itself to be observed is the inversion of the prophetic <word-order>, <at> Daniel 7:10, thus: "Countless ten-thousands <were present> to him, and a thousand thousands were ministering to him", whereas it has been rendered by the Septuagint suitably to the <Hebrew?> original, "A thousand thousands were ministering to him, and ountless ten-thousands <were present> to him".  However, with Clement agree Irenaeus <in> book 2, chapter 6; Gregory of Nyssa <in> homily 8 "on Ecclesiastes"; and Cyril of Alexandria <in> the epistle on the Creed.  [The words of ministering and assisting are even worse corrupted in other <writers>]: as in Tertullian, chapter 3 of the "Book against Praxeas"; Chrysostom <in> tome 6, "Homily on the blind man and Zacchaeus"; Theodore the Studite <in> catechesis 82, 107; Michael Syncellus <in> "Praise of the angels", tome 1 of the Combefisian Addition of the Library of the Fathers; <in> the "Liturgies" of Gregory and Cyril; and <in> the "Ordinations of the Syrian Maronites" published by Jean Morin; and also in Gregory of Nyssa, tome 3 at the end of the tract "On virginity", and <in> Basil of Seleucia, oration 1.  In fact also <he> who wrote again the Novatians, printed with Cyprian, near the end of his little work, in the text of Daniel places an equal number of assisting and serving <angels>.  But most of all beyond others Eusebius and Chrysostom <throw things into disorder> <respectively in>, "Evangelical Preparation" book 7, chapter 15: and "against the Anomoeans" oration 6, tome 1, by citing: "Countless ten-thousands were ministering to him, and a thousand thousands were present before him", or, "were present to him".--Cotelier

27.  "all the creation":  The <reads> the manuscript.  But from the editions, except the London, is absent, "the".  The Septuagint <read>, "the earth".--Gallandi

28.  "by mutual knowledge":  Perhaps, "and by mutual knowledge", or rather, "by union", thus also above: "with mercy and mutual knowledge", perhaps, "union", should be read.--Young

29.  "he prepared":  Thus <reads> the manuscript according to Wotton.  Thus also <reads> the London edition.  Others <read>, "he prepard"[[G]].--Gallandi

My Notes
A.  As Cotelier indicates, this line seems to have been judged an interpolation, and so it seems not to appear in any of the current texts of the this epistle.

B.  This quotation seems to be significantly before the end, appx. 1/4 of the way into the text.

C.  I'm not quite sure what this is suppose to mean.

D.  At Migne, Pat. Lat. 23, col. 367

E.  The emendatory suggestions here is based on the similarity between the Latin words "levia" and "lenia".

F.  Aquinas?

G.  Spelling variant; no change in meaning.

Tuesday, August 6, 2013

PG001(col. 273-276): First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: Chapter 33.

(From the 1765 Venice edition of  André Galland's "Library of the Ancient Fathers", Tome 1, folio-size, p. 9)
Author:  André Galland

Googlebooks PDF: PG001

Chapter 33

What, therefore, shall we do, brothers?  Shall we be idle[[8]] from <good works> and abandon charity?  Not at all with the Mast{er} all this to occur to us; but let us hasten with zea{l} and eagerness, to accomplish all go{od} work.  For the demiurge[[9]] himself and master of all exults[[10]] in his wo{rks}.  For by h{is} almighty power he fixe{d}[[11]] <the> heavens, and by his incomprehensible und{erstanding he orga}nized[[12]] them; and {sepa}rated[[13]] land from the water encompassi{ng i}t, and established <it> {upon th}e steady[[14]] foundation of his own w{il}l[[15]]; and[[16]] the {anim}als <going about> in i{t}, by his own {comm}and he ordered them to be; <hav{ing crea}ted in advance> se{a an}d the animals in it, he enclosed <it> with his own {po}wer.  In addition to all, the most preeminent <and> almighty <sc. animal> in intellect, <i.e.> man, with holy and blameless[[17]] hands he formed, the <engraved mark> of his own image.  For thus[[18]] says God: "Let us make man according to image and according to our likeness[[19]]. And God made man, male and female he made them"[[29b]].  Therefore, having accomplished all these things, he praised[[20]] them, and blessed and said: "Increase and multiply"[[30b]].  Let us see that <insofar as> in good works[[21]] the just were all adorned.  Therefore, even the Lord himself, having adorned himself with works, rejoiced.  Therefore, having this pattern, unhesitatingly let us accede to his will; from our whole[[22]] strength let us work <the> work of justice.

Biblical Citations
29b.  Genesis 1:26,27

30b.  The same <sc. Genesis> 28

8.  "Shall we be idle":  Thus <reads> the manuscript, not as in the editions, "shall we be edle"[[A]].  However, Young and other would prefer, "will we do", "will be be idle", "will we abandon"[[B]], which to Wotton seems not at all necessary.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

9.  "For the demiurge himself", etc.:  These <words> are cited as uncertain in the "Parallels" of blessed John the Damascene, book 1, chapter 8, thus from the translation of the most learned man Jacques de Billy: [[Lat. Trans. Om.]].  He read, I think, in Greek: [[Gk. Trans. Om.]][[C]].--Cotelier

10.  "exults[ <...> almighty": John the Damascene <has>, "eksults <...> almitey"[[D]].--Gallandi

11.  "he fixed":  Mill and Wotton thus read in the manuscript.  But the editions along with John the Damascene <have>, "he fiksed"[[D]].--The same <sc. Gallandi>

12.  "understanding he organized":  Young, with the editions, <emends this as>, "w{isdom he arr}ayed".  However, Wotton, perceiving in the manuscript the earlier syllable "un-----"[[E]] with a space of more letters, reliably reads with the Damascene, "und{erstanding he orga}nized".  Which reading Coustant also followed.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

13.  "separated":  The editions <print>, "apportioned".  John the Damascene <writes>, "sundered"; and Coustant drew this reading from him.  But since the manuscript's gap demands more than three letters, Wotton replaced, "{sepa}rated"; because principally that word continually occurs <in> Genesis 1.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

14.  "upon the steady":  Thus read Wotton and Coustant with John the Damascene, although not with the editions, <which print>, "{as a} steady {tower}".  And indeed rightly.  For hence the statement is rather lofty.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

15.  "will":  John the Damascene <writes>, "wish".--The same <sc. Gallandi>

16.  "and the---by his own power":  Although John the Damascene had omitted those <words>[[C]], the Clementine context nevertheless requires them.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

17.  "in addition to all---with holy and blameless": Slightly otherwise <writes> the Damascene[[C]]: "in addition to these things---with his own and blameless".--The same <sc. Gallandi>

18.  "thus":  Thus the manuscript according to Wotton.  Thus also John the Damascene; the editions, except the London, <print>, "thus"[[D]].--The same <sc. Gallandi>

19.  "according to image and according to our likeness":  John the Damascene and the <Septuagint> <have>: "according to our image, and according to likeness".--The same <sc. Gallandi>

20.  "praised":  Beware that you not read with the published <text of> John the Damascene, "made":  for why <would Clement have written>, "having accomplished, he made": [[Lat. Trans. Om.]]?  And so rightly the manuscript <has>, "praised", by which one word indeed the holy Father accomplished those things which occur <in> Genesis 1:31 : "And God saw everything, as much as he made, and behold <it is> exceedingly beautiful."  Wotton is approximately of this opinion.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

21.  "Let us see that insofar as in works":  Although Wotton retains this manuscript reading; nevertheless, to others <it> appeared otherwise.  Davies read, "Let us see what <is> necessary.  By works, etc."  But <that> is farther away from the manuscript.  More nearly approaches <Anton> Birr, who, <with> the small error having been removed, thus thinks <it> should be written: "We see both that in works <...> the just, and <that> he himself, etc."  [[Lat. Trans. Om.]].--The same <sc. Gallandi>

22.  "from <...> whole":  Bois would prefer, "and from <...> whole": nor does Wotton disagree.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

My Notes
A.  Erroneous spelling of the same word.

B.  These are the future indicative forms, intended as emendations to the deliberative subjunctives in the manuscript.

C.  Cotelier appears not to have had access to the Greek text of John the Damascene's Sacred Parallels.  Hence, he translates back into Greek de Billy's translation from Greek.  But the Damascene's text in Migne's volume 95 is substantially the same as Clement's text here.  There are a few minor variations in similar-looking words and word order, but the only major difference is that John the Damascene's citation is missing the section, "and the animals going about in it, by his own command he ordered them to be; having created in advance sea and the animals in it, he enclosed it with his own power". cf. notes [[16]] and [[17]] above

D.  The different texts have different forms of the words, but they don't seem to change the meaning.

Friday, August 2, 2013

PG001(col. 271-272): First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: Chapter 32.

(From the 1765 Venice edition of  André Galland's "Library of the Ancient Fathers", Tome 1, folio-size, p. 9)
Author:  André Galland

Googlebooks PDF: PG001

Chapter 32

{If} one will sincerely comprehend each <thing> according to one <i.e., individually>, he will recognize {the sp}lended <things> of the gifts giv{en} by him.  For from him[[4]] <are> priest{s} and levites <,> all the minist{e}rs to the altar of God; from him <is> the Lord Jesus <considered> according to the flesh; from him <are> kings and rulers and leaders according to[[5]] Judah; but his remaining scepters are not in small glory, inasmuch as <with> God promising that "your seed will be as the stars of heaven"[[28b]].  All, therefore, were glorified and magnified not through themselves or their works or the <just-dealing> which you effected, but through his will.  And we, therefore, through his will in Christ Jesus having been called, not through ourselves are we just, nor through our wisdom or understanding or piety or works which we effected in holiness of heart; but through faith, through which the almighty God justified all of the of old[[6]]; to whom be the glory[[7]] in the ages of the ages.  Amen.

Biblical Citations
28b. Genesis 22:17 and 26:4

4.  "from him": Thus rightly Young <prints> with the editions, although the manuscript bears before itself, "from them".  The error clearly arose by the negligence of a librarian: for for presently, "from him", is twice repeated.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

5.  Cotelier translates, "on account of Judah", but other translators <translate>, "from the family and blood of Judah".  Clement declares that kings, princes, and leaders had <their> origin from Jacob according to the tribe of Judah.--Coustant

6.  "of the of old":  This is the manscript's reading, <with> Mill <as> witness, not however, "the <ones> of old", as the editors have[[A]].  It escaped Wotton.--Gallandi

7.  "be the glory":  <In> the imperial codices except for the London, the article "the" is absent, which the manuscript exhibits.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

My Notes
A.  This reading, however, is in the Codex Hierosolymitanus.

Thursday, August 1, 2013

PG001(col. 271-272): First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: Chapter 31.

(From the 1765 Venice edition of  André Galland's "Library of the Ancient Fathers", Tome 1, folio-size, p. 9)
Author:  André Galland

Googlebooks PDF: PG001

Chapter 31

Let us adhere, therefore, to his blessing, and let us see which <are> the paths of blessing.  Let us unroll the things <which have happened> from the beginning.  <By> whose grace was our father Abraham blessed[[24b]]?  <Was he> not <one who did> justice and truth through faith?  Isaac with trus{t kno}wing the future, glad{ly beca}me a sacrifice[[25b]].  Jacob with humil{ity} went out of h{is} land {fleeing <his> bro}ther, and journeyed to {Laban}[[26b]], and <became a servant>; and the twleve-scepter[[3]] of {Israel}[[27b]] was giv{en to him}.

Biblical Citations
24b.  James 2:21

25b.  Genesis 22:9

26b.  Genesis 28,29

27b.  3 Kings 11:31 according to the Septuagint[[A]]

3.  "the twelve-scepter":  This is, the twelve-tribe: for scepter is taken for tribe, as <in> 3 Kings 11:31[[A]]: "And I will give to you ten scepters, and two scepters will be to him."  Thus also our Clement <writes> <in> the following chapter, "but the remaining scepters".  Thus <is the opinion of> Young.  To which things <add if you please> from Ruchat[[here??]] that the same word with this very meaning is employed by the author of the "Testaments of the 12 Patriarchs", both in the "Testament of Dan", chapter 1: "So that <the> two tribes in Israel not be undone": [[Lat. Trans. Om.]]; and also in the "Testament of Naphthali", chapter 5: "They will inherit in captivity the 12 scepters of Israel": [[Lat. Trans. Om.]]--The same <sc. Gallandi>

My Notes
A.  The designation "3 Kings" is actually our 1 Kings.  The books of Samuel in the Septuagint were numbered as 1 & 2 Kings.  Consequently, our 1 & 2 Kings were numbered 3 & 4 Kings.  

PG001(col. 269-272): First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: Chapter 30.

(From the 1765 Venice edition of  André Galland's "Library of the Ancient Fathers", Tome 1, folio-size, p. 9)
Author:  André Galland

Googlebooks PDF: PG001

Chapter 30

Being, therefore, a portion of the Holy, let us do everything <that is> of sanctification, fleeing slanders, wicked and holy[[99]] intertwinings, strong drinks and innovations, and wicked desires, foul adultery, wicked pride.  "For God," <it> says[[20b]], "opposes the proud, and to the humble he gives grace."  Let us, therefore, be adhered to those, to whom the grace from God has been given.  Let us put on agreement, <being humble>, <being continent>, making ourselves far from all whispering and slander, by works <being just>, and not by words.  For <it> says, "Will he <who says> many things also <be heard in turn>, or is the eloquent thought to be just?  <The> blessed <man> born of woman <is> short-lived.  Do not be plentiful in words" [[21b]].  Our praise be in God[[100]], and not from ourselves[[22b]]; for God hates self-praisers[[23b]].  Let the witness of our good deeds be given by others[[1]], just as <it> was given to our just fathers.  Insolence and stubbornness and rashness <are> to the <ones cursed>[[2]] by God; moderation and humility and meekness <are> with the <ones blessed> by God.

Biblical Citations
20b.  James 4:6 ; I Peter 5:5

21b.  Job 11:2,3 ; 14:1

22b.  Romans 2:29

23b.  2 Corinthians 10:17,18

99.  "holy intertwinings":  The error here clearly is evident from the carelessness of a librarian.  Hence, other read, "lustful".  Others, and perhaps more rightly, <read>, "unholy":  a word <more commonly used> <by> ecclesiastical writers.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

     --"holy":  Read, "lustful", from the conjecture of the reverend Father[[A]].  Hesychius <glosses>: "lustful, the shameful <one>, <who has been excited> about unchastity".--Colomiès

100.  "in God":  Young would prefer, "from God".  The following <words>, "and not from ourselves", seem to persuade Wotton <of> this reading.  The passage <in> Romans 2:29, whence perhaps the Clementine borrowing, confirms the conjecture: "Whose praise <is> not from men, but from God".--Gallandi

1.  "Let <...> be given by others":  Thus <reads> Proverbs 27:2  : "Let <your> neighbor and not your <own> mouth praise you, <the> stranger and not your <own> lips."  "For in <one's own> praises boasting is odious," as Cyprian says to Donatus, and as Pliny <in> epistle 8, book 1, elegantly <says>, "what had been wonderful <when> another <was reporting> <it>, disappears <when> <he> himself who had done <it> <recounts> <it>."  And our Clement later <writes>: "Let the humble not bear witness to himself, but let <him> permit to be witnessed to by another".--Young

2.  "the ones cursed":  Others think <the word> "with" <should be placed in front>, as presently <in>, "with the ones blessed".  Wotton adds nothing: for the same alteration of phrasing repeatedly occurs in the New Testament, to whose style the holy Father closely approaches.  Which opinion Blackwall clearly approves and confirms in "The Authors of sacred classics defended", page 85.--Gallandi

My Notes
A.  Not sure who this is.

Saturday, July 27, 2013

PG001(col. 269-270): First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: Chapter 29.

(From the 1765 Venice edition of  André Galland's "Library of the Ancient Fathers", Tome 1, folio-size, p. 9)
Author:  André Galland

Googlebooks PDF: PG001

Chapter 29

Let us approach, therefore, to him in holiness of soul, "raising hands pure"[[17b]] and undefiled toward him, loving our fair and compassionate Father, who made for himself a portion of choice[[94]].  For thus it has been written, "When the Highest distributed[[95]] the peoples, as he scattered[[96]] <the> sons <of> Adam, he established boundaries of peoples according to <the> number of angels of God[[97]].  Became a portion of the Lord his people Jacob, <an> allotment of his inheritance Israel"[[18b]].  And in another place he says: "Behold, the Lord takes to himself a people from the midst of peoples, just as man[[98]] takes his first-fruits of the threshing-floor, and the Holy of holies will come out of that people"[[19b]].

Biblical Citations
17b.  I Timothy 2:8

18b.  Deuteronomy 32:8,9

19b.  Deuteronomy 4:34 ; Numbers 18:27 ; II Chronicles 31:14

94.  "who <...> of choice":  Some think <this> reading is defective, and they insert <the word> "us" or "the peoples".  However, Davies seems to me to have touched the matter <accurately> with a needle, who with a slight change rewrites, "whom <...> of choice", so that it is referred back to the word "us".--Gallandi

95.  "distributed":  Thus <reads> the manuscript according to Wotton, thus also <reads> the London edition.  Others <print>, "disdributed"[[A]].The same <sc. Gallandi>

96.  "scattered":  Thus <reads> the manuscript as in the Septuagint, for which true reading thrown back into the margin, Young with the editions substituted that <reading> in the text, "and he sowed". <Wotton's note>.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

97.  "of God":  This word is absent <in> the [imperial codices], if you except the London, which <word> however exists in the manuscript and the Septuagint <exhibits> <it>.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

98.  "just as man takes":  Frey rightly observed that Clement formed this passage both from Numbers 18:27 and from II Chronicles 31:14, where is read: "To give the first-fruits of the Lord, and the Holy of holies".  Such that the meaning is: God for himself from the remaining men separated us, and made <us> a portion of choice, as from the threshing-floor is plucked out the first-fruit sacred to God, which becomes the Holy of holies.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

My Notes
A.  Alternate Greek spelling of the same word.

Tuesday, July 23, 2013

PG001(col. 267-270): First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: Chapter 28.

(From the 1765 Venice edition of  André Galland's "Library of the Ancient Fathers", Tome 1, folio-size, p. 9)
Author:  André Galland

Googlebooks PDF: PG001

Chapter 28

All things, therefore, being seen and being heard[[87]], let us fear him, and let us abandon foul desires of vain works, so that with his mercy we are sheltered[[88]] from the future judgments.  For where[[89]] can any of us flee from his powerful hand?  And what kind of world will receive one of <those deserting>[[90]] from him?  For somewhere the Scripture[[91]] says, "Where will I arrive[[92]], where will I be hidden from your face?  If I should go up to heaven, you are there; if I should go away to the ends of the earth, there <is> your right hand; if [<I should spread down>] into the abysses[[93]], there <is> your spirit"[[16b]].  To where, therefore, should one go, or where should one flee away from the <one who encompasses> everything?

Biblical Citations
16b.  Psalm 138:7-10

87.  "being heard":  From Bois, "by him", should be inferred.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

88.  "we are sheltered":  From the manuscript Wotton restored this reading, which Young with the edition except the London placed in the margin, the other <reading> "we shelter" <having been introduced> into the text.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

89.  "Where...flee":  Thus <reads> the manuscript.  Others prefer, "To where": and they exhibit, "flee"[[A]].--The same <sc. Gallandi>

90.  "deserting":  Hesychius <defines>: "Deserter. The <one who has gone away> to the enemies, betrayer".  In translating this word the great Casaubon sinned, <at> Polybius, book 4, page 322, where he translates, "but the deserter", <as> Automolus, as if it were a proper name.  But Polybius <means to refer to> a certain Aetolian deserter, whom he previously had mentioned, as advised Henri Valois, the equal, if not in certain things superior, to Casaubon, [<in the Preface>] on excerpts from the <collected works> of Constantine Porphyrogenitus.--Colomiès

91.  "For somewhere the Scripture says":  Rightly the Psalter is presented with the name of Scripture: since indeed, as we learn from St. Epiphanius, heresy 29, chapter 7; and <from> St. Jerome in the "Helmeted Prologue"[[B]], and in the preface to <the book of> Daniel, the sacred Scriptures of the Old Testament are distributed into <the categories of> law-giving or law, prophets, and writings: <that is> in the books of Moses or the Law, the Prophets, and <the sacred-writings>: and in the third category is contained the book of David <i.e., Book of Psalms>.  Certainly at Luke 24:44 you have the Psalms <mentioned as> distinct from the Law and the Prophets: "<It> is necessary that everything which is written about me in the Law of Moses, and the Prophets, and the Psalms be fulfilled."  And the most preeminent Jews, Philo and Josephus, agree with the evangelist: <the former, i.e., Philo> <in> "Book on the contemplative life", after the beginning, page 893; <the latter, i.e., Josephus> <in> book 1 "Against Apion", similarly after the beginning, page 1036.  Sometimes, however, the psalms are not numbered among scriptures and <sacred-writings>, according to other divisions of Scripture; certainly, at Epiphanius's chapter 4, of the book "On weights and measures", and that copyist's of John the Damascene chapter 18, book 4 "On the orthodox faith"; likewise Cassiodorus's book 1 of "Institution for divine readings"; and also Jerome's in the prefaces to "Tobit" and "Judith".  For since he <sc. Jerome> in the above cited "<helmeted> Prologue", from the canonical books of the Hebrews, <i.e.> the books of the Law, of the Prophets, and the sacred-writings, and among these last the Psalter, separated the volumes of Tobit and of Judith, the same two volumes, in prefaces to them, he hands down that by the Hebrews <they were cut off> from the catalog of divine Scriptures, and <are read> among the sacred-writings, whose authority is judged <as> less suitable towards <confirming> those things which come into contention.  By which fact it happens that the Hebrews should be said to have had sacred-writings of twofold kind, evidently of greater and of lesser authority, and among the former <insofar as this matter is concerned> with the sacred Scriptures to have placed the Psalms.  Nor will you wonder at the diverse acceptance and authority of the sacred-writings after you have read those distinguished <sc. words> on the canonical books in <the writings of> the blessed Augustine, <in> book 2 "On Christian Teaching", chapter 8: "Now, in the canonical Scriptures, let <him> follow the authority of several catholic Churches; among which clearly are those which have merited to have apostolic seats and to accept Epistles.  And so <he> will have this manner in the canonical Scriptures, so that those which are accepted by all catholic Churches, he may place before those <which certain ones> they do not accept.  But among those which are not accepted by all, let <him> place those which the more numerous and more weighty <sc. churches> accept, before those which the fewer and of lesser authority Churches hold.  Now, if <he> should find some by more numerous, others by more weighty <sc. churches> to be had; although he might not easily find this, nevertheless I think they should be <considered> of equal authority".--Cotelier

     --From here <it is evident> that the most distinguished Isaac Vossius in response to Richard Simon's repeated objections undeservedly considered the word "scripture" to have been invented by Aquila.  From here also is confirmed Epiphanius's passage <in> heresy 29, section 7, where treating about the Nazareans, he says that the sacred-writing books are called "scriptures" by the Jews.  After Epiphanius, the Damascene hands down the same.--Colomiès

92.  "will I arrive":  The word <is> suspect to several; but Mill observes that it was used by Plato <in book> 7 "On the Republic", and it means the same as "I will arrive"[[C]].--Gallandi

93.  "if I should spread down":  Thus Clement best expressed the force of the Hebrew word, "he spread out", which means "he spread"[[D]].  For neither does he always follow the translation of the 70, but sometimes prefers either his own or <that> of other [teachers <learned in Hebrew>].  The Hebrew truth sounds in Latin: "If I will have made a blanket", or, "I will have placed a blanket in the abyss", or, "in the sepulcher."  And thus in Greek: "If I should spread down into the abyss".  [<This note taken from> Bois].--Gallandi

     --"if I should spread down into the abysses":  Thus Job 17:13 : "And in darkness my bedding lies spread[[E]]", and indeed the word "to spread down" in this passage closely approaches to the Hebrew source.--Young

My Notes
A.  A difference of one letter distinguished the aorist infinitive in the text from the suggested present infinitive. The aorist likely indicates the completed act of having initiated an escape, whereas the present likely indicates the ongoing act of fleeing.  There may not have been much of a recognized distinction in colloquial speech.

B.  The prologue known specifically by this name is to Jerome's Vulgate translation of the book of Kings.  More generally, a defensive prologue to a potentially controversial work was metaphorically said to be "helmeted".

C.  The topic here is the genuineness of a rare word that appears in the text.

D.  The topic here is Clement's translations of a particular metaphor, but more generally that his translation of these lines differs significantly from what we have in the Septuagint, which follows the Masoretic text.

E.  Perfect middle of stornumi.

Monday, July 15, 2013

PG001(col. 267-268): First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: Chapter 27.

(From the 1765 Venice edition of  André Galland's "Library of the Ancient Fathers", Tome 1, folio-size, p. 9)
Author:  André Galland

Googlebooks PDF: PG001

Chapter 27

By this hope, therefore, let our souls be bound to the <one> faithful in promises and to the <one> just in judgments; The <one who has commanded> not to lie, much more he himself will not lie; for nothing <is> impossible for God, except lying.  Therefore, let his faith be rekindled in us, and let us think that everything is close to him.  In a word of his greatness he organized everything, and in a word he can overturn it.  "Who will say to him, What did you do?  Or who will stand against the power of his strength"[[12-13b]]; when he wills, and how he wills, he will do[[85]] everything, and none of the <things that have been decreed> by him <at all will> pass away[[14b]].  Everything is in front of him, and nothing <has escaped the notice of> his counsel.  If "the heavens[[86]] are telling <the> glory of God, and the firmament announces <the> work of his hands; <one> day to <another> day bellows a word, and night to night announces knowledge; and <there> are no words, nor discussions, of which their voices are not heard"[[15b]].

Biblical Citations
12-13b. Wisdom 12:12

14b.  Matthew 24:35

15b. Psalm 18:1-4

85.  "he will do":  Thus <reads> the manuscript <according to> Mill and Wotton.  But Young with the editions <prints>, "he did".  Which reading [of another manuscript] indeed Wotton thinks should be preferred, and <that> for "pass away" should be read "passed away".  But <there> is <no reason> why we should disturb the manuscript's reading, since "he will do" rightly fits the <word> "pass away"[[A]].  "When he wills and how he wills, he will do everything; nor will anything decreed by him pass away."  Thus <renders> Frey.--Gallandi

86.  "If the heavens": Davies conjectured that, "and the heavens", should be read.--The same<sc. Gallandi>

My Notes
A.  The issue here is that the manuscript's reading for the verb "pass away" is in the aorist subjunctive which seems to have a prohibitive force due to the "me".  Since the protasis contains a future verb, the context suggests giving the aorist subjunctive a future sense.

Sunday, July 14, 2013

PG001(col. 265-266): First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: Chapter 26.

(From the 1765 Venice edition of  André Galland's "Library of the Ancient Fathers", Tome 1, folio-size, p. 9)
Author:  André Galland
Googlebooks PDF: PG001

Chapter 26

Great and wondrous, therefore, do we consider <it> to be, if the demiurge of all things[[83]] will make a resurrection of the <one having done service> piously to him in confidence of good faith, where also through a bird he shows to us the magnificence of his gospel?  For somewhere he {s}ays: "And you will raise me up, a{nd} <I will make grateful acknowledgments> to you"[[9b]]  {A}nd: "I lay down and slept; I r{o}se up because you are with me"[[10b]]. {And} again Job says: "And you will raise up[[84]] {--} this my flesh, which <has endured> all these things"[[11b]].

Biblical Citations
9b. Psalm 17:50

10b. Psalm 3:6

11b. Job 19:25,26

83.  "of all things":  The manuscript <reads> thus.  The editions, except the London, <print> "of everything"[[A]].--The same <sc. Gallandi>

84.  "you will raise up":  Blessed Clement first drew this passage to the resurrection, whom others later followed.  But who from those first Christians, [greater than <their> era], would demand a full explanation of all passages of Scripture?  Who [among the many] would think that they and their <descendants> not rightly <hallucinated>?--Colomiès

My Notes
A.  There is no major distinction in the meaning of the forms "pas" and "hapas"  for "all/every" in Greek.  The latter is properly emphatic, though.

PG001(col. 261-266): First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: Chapter 25.

(From the 1765 Venice edition of  André Galland's "Library of the Ancient Fathers", Tome 1, folio-size, p. 9)
Author:  André Galland

Googlebooks PDF: PG001

Chapter 25

{Let} us {see} the incredible sign, the <one {having occurred}> in the eastern {pl}aces, that is, the <ones> about Arabia.  For a bird <there> is, which is called phoenix[[79]]; this <bird> <uniquely> existing lives five hundred years; and it being already at <the> release of dying[[80]], makes a nest for itself from frankincense and myrrh and the remaining <aromatic herbs>, into which, the time being fulfilled, it enters and dies.  And <while> the flesh <is> rotting, a certain worm is produced, which, raised up from the moisture of the animal <that has died>, grows wings; then, becoming <strong>, <it> lifts that nest, where the bones of the <one that existed before> are, and carrying them, <it> bends away[[81]] from the Arabian land until Egypt, into the city called Heliopolis; and by day[[82]], <with> all looking, flying up it places them upon the altar of the Sun, and thus to back <from where it came> <it> goes off.  Therefore, the priests examine the records of the times, and find that it has come <when> five-hundred years <have been fulfilled>.

79.  "For a bird there is, which is called phoenix":  No other tale is reported in whose explanation writers more agree and more disagree.  Almost all agree in the <literal matter>, <but> disagree about the manner <of interpretation>.  And in fact <it> is the custom <of> the Fathers to use the example of the phoenix, some towards morals, some towards mysteries <such as> the virgin birth and the <Lord's> and our resurrection.  <It> is brought by others against false dogmas, in <the writings of> Augustine, book 4, "On the Soul and its Origen", chapter 20; and in <the writings of> Maximus, cited in the Euthymius's Panoply, part 2, title 15, page 607, and in the Notes of Hoeschel on codex 126 of the Photian "Library".  But <it is> amazing that to all Christians <it> did not smell <of> fraud on account of the paganism mixed into the story.  Now, since "phoenix" in Greek signifies both a unique bird and a palm-tree, from this it is done that [the text of David's psalm] 91, <verse> 13, "<The> just will flourish like a phoenix", is accepted by most <as> about a palm-tree, <but> by Tertullian in "Book on the resurrection of the flesh", chapter 13, and by Epiphanius in chapter 11 of "Physiologue"[[A]] <as> about a bird.  From here also <it> happens that Ezekiel the poet, in the drama entitled "Exodus", after he treated of the seventy palm-trees <in> Exodus 15:27, he appended a meeting <with> and description of the phoenix, in verses which Eusebius's "Evangelical Preparation", book 9, chapter 29, and Eustathius's Commentary on "The Six Days"[[B]], page 25, 26, contain; and <it happens> that the author of the song on the phoenix, attributed to Lactantius, gave place to the palm-tree in his fiction; <and> finally <it happens> that by reason of etymology some have deduced the tree from the bird, <and> some the bird from the tree:  about which should bee seen, beyond the just mentioned poet, Pliny, "<Natural> History", book 13, chapter 4, and Isidore, "Origins"[[C]], book 17, chapter 7, and book 13, chapter 7.  Furthermore, the <little narrative> of the phoenix in the later editions of Jerome is defective, and thus from the old Lyonnaise <manuscript> should be called back to former wholeness, by rewriting in this manner: "The phoenix is a bird in India, and <after> five hundred years <it> fills itself with <aromatic herbs> from <Syria> and thus <makes a nest>.  And <it> indicates to the Heliopolitan priest <in> the month of Famenoth or Farmuth.  The priest fills the altar with twigs, and there the phoenix brings <aromatic herbs>, and places <amber-colored metal> in the altar.  And at the first rise of the sun, the phoenix indeed moves <its> feathers, but by the heat of the sun the <amber-colored metal> is ignited, and thus the <aromatic herbs> are burned up, and the phoenix itself is set aflame.  On the following day, from the ash is generated a worm, second, it brings forth feathers, third, it returns to <its> former nature: and thus to its own places it returns."  The passage is had in the Epistle, or rather after the Epistle to Praesidius, regarding the Paschal <candle>.--Cotelier

     "For a bird there is, which is called phoenix":  Regarding the phoenix, a <much-chattered-about> bird, and a symbol of the resurrection, many <people have said> many <things>, the Greek and Latin Fathers, historians, and philosophers, with restrained and loose speech.  Now, Maximus, against the dogmas of Severus, <in a letter> to Peter the Illustrious[[D]] tries to demonstrate <as> a fable <the things> which are told about it, and he contends that no animal is "unique, nor does any of the bodies" (as he says) "<which> <in the course of> generation and destruction <are> animate and perceptive begin according to a unique origin of nature.  Of which things the succession from each other according to form, is a conspicuous mark and definition of being."  I, although uncertain are things which are reported about this bird, and augmented with fabulous <things> (as <does> Tacitus <in> book 4 of "Annals"), nevertheless that <there> is a winged <animal> of such a kind, which is restored by the renewed humor of its flesh, and rises from its <own> pyre, and is heir of its <own> body and produce of its <own> ash, and which <situation> also in Egypt is sometimes seen; with that I do not dispute: and I prefer with our Clement, as apostolic man, Tertullian, Origen, Cyril of Jerusalem, Eusebius, <Gregory> Nazianzen, Epiphanius, Synesius, Jerome, Ambrose, Lactantius, Pliny, Seneca, Mela, Solinus, Philostratus, Libanius, and others, to err; than to follow Maximus and the opinion of his followers, who measure the almighty power of the demiurge with the feebleness of human reason, and circumscribe the lord of subservient nature.  Now, against Maximus I oppose Origen, who <in> book 4 "Against Celsus", asserts that this can be done according to nature; his words <are> thus: "<It is possible for> even it to occur <as> natural, the divine providence <having abundantly provided>, and among the differences of animals <it is possible> to set before men the <dazzlingly variegated quality> of the <preparatory furnishing> of the <things> in the cosmos, <which quality> applying even to birds; and <it sc. divine providence> <brought into existence> some unique animal, so that even with this he might make be admired not the animal, but the <one who has made> it."  And to this most full and most firm (so that I might use the words of Tertullian) example of the resurrection, from Methodius also [of the newest day] I add a not dissimilar sign and lesson in nature: evidently, the ["pyragnum"] plant, which <when> <mount> Olympus <is burning> thrives and blooms in the <midst of the flames>, as if it were planted next to a downflow of waters; but <it is preferable> to hear him himself, who was an eyewitness of this miracle.[[E]]  "I saw on Olympus <for myself> a fire spontaneously throughout the ridge of the mountain from below sent up from the ground; around which is a "pyragnus" plant, on the one hand so flourishing and verdant, but on the other hand so <thickly shaded>, as <though> below a stream" <<perhaps 'upon a stream'>> "rather it has sprouted forth; through what cause, therefore, if <its> substances are of destructible and by fire [consumed] bodies, does this plant not only not burn up, but rather <more vigorously> exists, if <in its substance> <it> is <easily burned> and [these <things occur>] <when> the fire <is smouldering> around its very roots?  Then at least, branches of trees from the adjacent wood I threw along whichever place the fire belched forth, and straightaway taken up into flame <they were burnt to ashes>.  What, therefore, <does> this contradiction <mean>?  God placed this <as> an indication and introduction of the coming day, so that we may know that <when> everything by fire <is rained down upon>, the bodies persisting in purity and justice will step upon fire just as upon cold water."[[F]] But to the skilled [initiates] of nature I relinquish these things' hidden causes to be carefully investigated, and with Cyril of Alexandria, about the whale which by the command of God devoured Jonah, making words I conclude this passage: "We say, therefore, that <as> a contradiction truly and beyond both reason and <habitual acquaintance> we might suitably consider the <chance event>; but if God <could be said> to accomplish <it>, who yet <will be a disbeliever>?  For the divine is almighty, and easily <remodels> the natures of beings towards whatever indeed <it> <might choose>, and against his ineffable breaths nothing <is> <that which leads out against>; for the <thing which has grown> to be corrupted might become stronger even than deterioration <when he wishes>, and the <thing which has been fixed> and <is> unshaken and <is> disagreeable to the laws of deterioration, might easily suffer deterioration; for nature, I think, for beings <is> <what seems best> to the founder."  But while we write these things, a by far pernicious notice is brought to here regarding the fall of an incomparable hero and most warlike king, indeed the August Gustavus, phoenix of this century; whose excellent deeds the eternal honor of chronicles will celebrate: we are able not unsuitably to lament his alas too sudden and for the Christian world premature death (if true are <the things> which <are becoming widespread> through sad rumor) <with> a comparison taken up from the phoenix and <with> the words of Libanius <on> the murder of a vigorous warrior, but by far dissimilar leader; if any words avail sufficiently to express so great and so calamitous a loss of so great a leader:[[G]] "He departed, on the one hand, having tasted the <civilized world> of the good, but not <sufficiently having achieved> to satiate <himself>;  but we have experienced as if it is at hand for the phoenix bird on the one hand to extend <its> flight though the whole land, but to stand in no place, neither of countries nor of cities; for thus dim has become for men the appearance of <that> bird; and now what blessedness he rendered, he ran through as though winged": unless God, the best and greatest, having had mercy upon his church,from his ashes should raise up another new and revived phoenix for his laboring people; so that he might do which thing, we will not cease to importune with assiduous and ardent prayers.  May it happen, may it happen.--Young

     Photius in the "Library", according to the irritable nature of critics, ascribes <as a fault> to our author that he here has made words about the phoenix.  However, he could have remembered that in sacred writings, at least from the <opinion> of the 70 translators, Jerome, and other translators, animals are recounted not more unknown by the experts <in> natural history and philosophy, than this Assyrian bird, <">which <as> heir of its own body and product of <its own> ashes is asserted to be restored by the renewed humor of its own flesh and to rise up again from the funeral pyre<">[[H]]; there also are rendered  jackals, satyrs, dragons, lilith, wild goat, bearded vulture, lion, goat-stags, griffins, ant-lions, fauns, satyrs, sirens, <and> lamias.[[I]].  But in fact, <it> deserves a disquisition whether express mention about the phoenix is had in Sacred Scripture, of course, <in> the book of Job, chapter 29, <verse> 18, where it says: "I will die with my nest, and like sand I will multiply <my> days"[[J]].  <Rendered in Latin as:> "I will die in my nest and like the phoenix I will multiply <my> days".  The most ancient authors among the Hebrews, the book of Zohar, the Talmud in tractate Sanhedrin, Bereshith Rabbah, the book of Yalkut[[K]], <and> Rabbi Shlomo Yarchi in commentary at this passage clearly are of this opinion.  And in fact, in the Masorah <it> is specifically noted this this word, "sand", means something other than <what it means> usually, about which Jerome <writes> in the epistle "To Praesidius".  But also from a certain Masoretic note [which is read <as> added to certain manuscript Bibles <and> by which <note> <it> is set forth that <sc. this word> is found twice and that it <is found> in two meanings], <it> follows that in <the book of> Job <it> means phoenix, while <in> Genesis 22:17 <it> means sand.  Furthermore, Rabbi David Kimhi says that he found the word "CH-W-L"[[L]] with Shurek[[M]], so that it means phoenix, in a corrected Jerusalem book.  In fact, the 70 elders thus rendered these words, "My lifetime will grow old like a root of a phoenix", where phoenix is a homonym and expresses palm-tree no less that phoenix.  But since indeed nowhere is <it> known that "CH-W-L"[[L]] denotes a palm-tree, <it> comes to be thought whether truly unbelievable is <the word> "the root" placed here [in <the writings of> them <sc. Septuagint translators>] in that meaning, for which stock and pedigree in almost all [dialects] are employed throughout.  If which thing is done, the 70 Translators themselves completely acknowledged the phoenix.  But yet if <it> is added [<as> a support to the passage], that especially praised authors, some sacred, some profane, of course, Herodotus, Tacitus, Dio, Plutarch, Pliny, Seneca, Mela, Solinus, Philostratus, Libanius, Tertullian, Origen, Cyril of Jerusalem, Eusebius, <Gregory> Nazianzen, Epiphanius, Synesius, Jerome, Ambrose, Lactantius, Bede, etc., such that <I might be silent about> the race of poets and pass over writers of a lesser era, were of the same opinion; <it> should seem not at all amazing (howsoever Bochart may think otherwise) that the most learned Young [determined to himself with so many signs to err, especially in a matter where <one is mistaken> without injury, <rather than> by acceding to promoters of the contrary opinion indeed to think rightly].  Certainly although Cornelius Tacitus, with whom agree the remaining historians of that century, eloquently says: "<When> Paulus Fabius and Lucius Vitellius <were> consuls, after a long period of centuries, the phoenix bird <came> to Egypt, and <provided> to the most learned of the native <peoples> and of the Greeks the material of discussing many things about that miracle"; not at all is <it> to be thought that he blathered a mere lie and a pure, clear fable; especially since <it is established> sufficiently how much the evil demon once [would leap upon] the superstition and ignorance of wretched men, and [how much <it> was <for his benefit> <at> that time, when the splendor of the Gospel began to greet the <world> with life-giving rays, to conciliate his very self to some noteworthy fiction.]  And indeed <he> who had manifested himself as "prince of the air"[[N]] through the ministries of birds and the universal apparatus of augural knowledge, and who had consecrated with the solemn talking-marvel of birds those most celebrated <oracles> of the Dodonian Jove among the Greeks, and the oracles of Amun among the Egyptians, about which matter Herodotus, among others, in <Book 2 of the Histories>[[O]] can be consulted, will not appear to have acted absurdly, if he tried to establish <as> sacred his own judgments, <with> the <wondrous sign> at Heliopolis <having been> called back, which long ago had inspired the souls of men, and had been able <to solemnly bind> the most ready faith to itself: no wonder that after a certain long interval, a bird of certainly unusual form, [at least by color], if not to be called phoenix even by the old nomenclature, showed its very self; in order that I use the words of Tacitus, "which <bird>, <with> a weight of myrrh <having been taken up>, and <it having been tested> through a long journey <what place> is equal to the burden <and> equal to the travel, conveyed its bundle to the altar of the son and <burned it in worship>"[[P]]; and by that plainly miraculous <ceremonial service>, no less than by <public spectacle>, added honor to the altars.  Certainly that <wondrous sign>, which gave courage to Tarquinius Priscus, such that he lay hold of <commanding authority> among the Romans, so that I may pass over other things mentioned by Livy, [seems to draw much from <i.e. be founded upon> this <sc. story of the phoenix?> for him, <and also> to bear a torch <i.e. guide> for him.  But if these things less satisfy, it could be said that the phoenix's history  is <considered> among all as conceded, and therefore <it> most rightly <is serviceable> to an argument led against the men <"ad hominem">; for it reports nothing, by which arms we may strike down an enemy; nor less happily will error be disproved by an admitted error, than by truth produced in <public> do trust and contract approach to truth.][[Q]]  Nor otherwise does the blessed Paul seem, when in this business he dwells among those judges (I understand <them to be> Corinthians), to have recounted <in service of> his cause  a usage equally improbable <as> this history of the phoenix, <namely,> baptism for the dead, so that thence he confirmed the resurrection.--Fell

     About the phoenix we have no more ancient testimony than that which exists in the "Chinese History" of Martini, a man most worthy of trust,  under the emperor Xoarro IV[[R]]: "Near the beginning of the empire, the bird of the Sun appeared, by whose coming they commonly consider that happiness is portended for the kingdom.  From <its> form, by which they depict this bird, you would believe <it to be> an eagle, if the wonderful and colorful variety of feathers did not oppose.  That I suspect <it> to be the phoenix, its rarity persuades."  You may read the same things in the verses of Ezekiel the Tragedian, <as cited> in Eusebius, "Preparation for the Gospel", book 9, and Eustathius in the "Six Days".--Colomiès

80.  "at the release of dying": Bois advise <that it> should be read, "at the release and moment of dying". Which Epiphanius thus expressed: "<Inasmuch as> it might know the impending moment of its death", and Ambrose: "Which <bird> when <it> has noticed the end of life is near to itself,"  and Tacitus: "<When> indeed the number of years <is> accomplished, when death approaches, in its lands <it constructs> a nest," etc.--Young

81.  "bends away from":  Alternately, swims across, or finishes, that is, it is carried with one outset <and> flies direct<ly> to Egypt.  But Wotton changes nothing: for he thinks, following Hesychius, that the word "bends away", that is, "turns" or "circles" (bends from Arabian land to Egypt) most aptly suits this passage.--Gallandi

82. "and by day":  If you hear Leclerc, "and through day<-time>" <should be> read.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

My Notes
A.  This work is apparently not by Epiphanius.

B.  This work is apparently not by Eustathius

C.  Also known as the "Etymologies", i.e., true origins.

D.  A governor of Numidia

E.  A bracketed note here indicates the following passage is cited from: Photius, "Library", page 623, Schott's edition

F.  A bracketed note here indicates comments on this section by Colomiès: "Perhaps <sc. "pryagnus"> should be read separately <as> 'pure fire'.  Thus certainly <read> Henri Estienne and his son-in-law Casaubon.  Whom Vitruvius appears to favor <in> book 8, chapter 3.  Thus, indeed, he <writes>: 'In Thessaly is a fountain flowing forth, from which fountain no cattle tastes, at which fountain nearby is a tree flowering with purple color.'  For as Vitruvius twice repeats the word 'fountain', thus could Methodius repeat the word 'fire'.--Colomiès"

G.  There appear to be some problems with the text of the following quote.  I have translated what appears in Migne, but later critical text have minor variants and emendations.

H.  This appears to be a quotation, since it's in italics in Migne.  It has some verbal echoes with a sermons of Ambrose on the Resurreciton, but I can't seem to find a direct quote.  It's possible it's a grammatical paraphrase.

I.  Although some of the words in this list denote fantastic animals, there appears to be some uncertainty as to the real animals referred to.

J.  The word order printed in Migne seems jumbled--not surprisingly, given the difficulty of managing Left to Right line breaks when the text reads Right to Left.

K.  As there are several such named books, I'm not sure which one Fell is referring to.

L.  Since this deals with the interpretation of this group of consonants (Heth, Waw, Lamed), I've transliterated here.

M.  This is the name of a Hebrew vowel.  One interpretation of the word in note [[L]] is that the letter Waw may be vocalized as a Shurek.  Different vocalizations of the same consonants result in different words.

N.  Cf. Ephesians 2:2

O.  Each individual book of Herodotus's Histories traditionally is given the name of a muse.  Book 2 is named Euterpe.

P.  This seems to be a mild paraphrase of Tacitus, in whose text the phrase "sarcinam suam" does not appear.

Q.  I'm not quite sure of the preceding translation, so I've bracketed it.

R.  My best conjecture is that this is this emperor.  I'm not sure what the roman numeral 4 is doing there, though.