Saturday, July 14, 2012

PG001(col. 219-222): First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: Chapter 6.

(From the 1765 Venice edition of  André Galland's "Library of the Ancient Fathers", Tome 1, folio-size, p. 9)
Author:  André Galland
Googlebooks PDF: PG001

Chapter 6

     To these men hallowedly[[41]] governing were gathered together a great multitude of elect, who having suffered with many outrages and tortures[[42]] because of envy, became among us a most beautiful example.  Having been persecuted because of envy, [women Danaids and Dirces][[43]], having suffered terrible and unholy outrages they arrive[{d} at the steady course of faith[[44]], and they weak in body obtained the noble prize.  Envy estranged wives from <their> men, and altered the <thing said> by our father Adam: 'Thi{s} now <is> bone from my bones and flesh from my flesh.'[[60c]]  Envy and strife overturned great cities and uprooted great peoples.

60c. Genesis 2:23

41. "Hallowedly": Thus <is> the manuscript here and in chapter 5 of the other epistle <sc. of Clement>. The editions in both places <have>, "divinely".  Wotton confirms this reading with many <words?>--Gallandi

42. "with many outrages and tortures": Others read, "many outrages and tortures"[[A]].--The same

43. "Danaids and Dirces":  Thus Wotton <reads> from the manuscript.  <Other> editions <have> '...Dirce'.  This passage has fixed a cross[[B]] for learned men.  Some judge that it was interpolated from Clement of Alexandria's "Miscellanies", book 4, chapter 19.  Others straightaway expunge <it>.  Others read otherwise.  Now, <Antoine> Birr demonstrates that they are deceived who think that those <words> were transferred here from the Alexandrian: since there is no "Dirce" there.  Whereas the "Danaids" are proposed as an example not of patience, but of womanly audacity in taking up arms.--Gallandi

     "Danaids and Dirce": <It> should perhaps be read, "Danae and Dirce".--Cotelier

     See the things which we wrote about this matter on page 3, section 11, chapters 5 and 14 of "The critical art".--Leclerc

     "Danaids and Dirce": There is no one who does not at first sight see that these things are foreign <to> this passage and plainly against the mind of the author, who has, if you will, lightly weighed out  his words which <appear> shortly above; where <having> abandoned ancient examples, he promises to bring out in public also newer (that I might use the word of Demosthenes) <examples> of his own century.  Now,  if <there is> place for conjecture, it <seems true> that a reading of Clement of Alexandria has provided the opportunity for this error, who <Clem. Alex.> in book 4 of the "Miscellanies", when he repeats the things which <appear> below near the end of this epistle and are explanatory of this passage, after the examples of Judith and Esther he adds from secular history and the tales of the poets several deeds of strong women, who scorned swords, fires, and the sufferings of torments with a constant and manly spirit (which it is discovered was also done by Tertullian in the "Book to the Martyrs"), among whom he mentions the daughters of Danaus and the author of "The Danaids", who composed in heroic song their history.  Whence it happened that since these words were first written in the margin of some ancient copy, they later crept into the text <due to> some inexperience librarian; however, <those words> which  enclosed in brackets we for that reason have separated from the remaining, are able to be retained not inappropriately if the particle "as" is prefixed, but the previous opinion is more favorable.--Young

     The conjectures of different <men> on this passage are various.  Cotelier suspects that in Greek "Danae and Dirce" are to be read.  But Jean Leclerc in "The Critical Art", page 3, section 2, chpater 6, note 15, conjectures that for the words "Danaids and Dirce" should be restored "without reverence and justice" [[Lat. Trans. Om.]], that is, irreverently [insofar as the weaker sex is considered] and against justice and right.  But I think no one with easily subscribe to his conjecture, since the sequence of speech demands that, in the manner that he most recently exhibited <examples> of men, so now he propose particular and individual examples of women.  It will far less please anyone that the Greek word "jealousy" [[Lat. Trans. Om.]][[C]] be understood.  For here it does not sound other than <it does> earlier, where Paul, Peter, David, etc., are mentioned as troubled "because of jealousy".  Nor does it seem more <likely to be heard>, since he established that about this passage, that "unless an error crept into it, there cannot be doubt that it is owed to a semi-pagan librarian," who united the tale of the daughters of Danaus with true histories.  Yet, as if it could not have happened around that time at which Peter and Paul suffered on account of the jealousy of the gentiles, that for the same cause two women named "Danaides and Dirce" were harassed, which <women> are elsewhere unknown to us.  Certainly the sequence of speech, as we were just saying, demands that singular examples of distinguished women be submitted: nor does it lead into error anything more than from the resemblance of names to attribute to one that which we know from another.  On account of which neither does their opinion seems acceptable, who by the fact that Clement of Alexandria in book 4 of the "Miscellanies" among the gentile women who begot for themselves praise for their own virtues, reckons the aforementioned daughters of Danaus, and mentions that they were celebrated by a certain poet with an encomium the title to which was "The Danaids", from which passage of the Alexandrian argue that that had been rashly stitched on by a certain librarian.--Coustant

44. "Towards the <course> of faith":  From Wotton thus <reads> the manuscript without the article "the"[[D]], which the editions add.--Gallandi

     "Arrived at the course":  Perhaps "to" <sc. instead of "at">[[E]], as below, "arrived to <maturity>".  Thus Paul at Ephesians 4:13 : "Until we all arrive to the unity of the faith"; and at Philippians 3:11 : "If somehow I will arrive to the resurrection of the dead".  I would prefer, however, <with> the preposition deleted, to read, "they accomplished", alluding to that <passage> of Paul <in> 2 Timothy 4:7  : "I have contended the good contest, I have finished the race, I have maintained the faith".--Young

My Notes
A. The difference is in one letter in the inflected suffixes which changes the dative instrument in to the accusative direct object.

B.  The "cross" seems to refer to an obelus, a cross-shaped mark used in textual criticism to indicate an unresolved corruption in the text.

C. The Latin word listed here is a Greek cognate, "zelotypia".  This differs from the common Latin translations  "aemulatio" and "invidia".  
     Also, I should note this somewhere in general remarks, but there is a difficulty in translating the two Greek words that are commonly rendered "jealousy" and "envy".  I'm not quite sure what the exact sense of each is supposed to be, since I doubt the proper English distinction (which if even recognized is often obscured in common speech) doesn't map cleanly on to them.  I suspect from the various Latin renderings that others have had similar difficulties with the precise sense of these words.

D. The point here is that the addition of the article would literally render this phrase as, "the course of the faith".  But Greek idiom is such that there is not necessarily a distinction between "course of faith" and "course of the faith", as there would be in English, where the former suggests the non-specific notion of belief, whereas the latter implies a specific creed, which is presumably what Clement intends.

E.  Another point about proper Greek idiom.  It would be smoother to render "come to" instead of "arrive to", but I want to preserve the same word.

Saturday, July 7, 2012

PG001(col. 217-220): First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: Chapter 5.

(From the 1765 Venice edition of  André Galland's "Library of the Ancient Fathers", Tome 1, folio-size, p. 9)
Author:  André Galland
Googlebooks PDF: PG001

Chapter 5

     But so that we may cease from ancient examples, let us come to <those who have most recently become> athletes; let us take the noble examples of our generation.  Because of envy and jealousy, <the> {Church's faith}ful[[29]] and most just pillar{s[[30]] were persecu}ted even unto {terrible} death[[31]].  Let us take before {our} eyes the good apostle{s[[32]].  Pete}r because of unjust envy neither {one n}or two, but several labors sust{ained}[[33]], and thus {having borne} witness[[34]] he journeyed to the deserv{ed} place of glory.  Because of envy, {}Paul sustained the prize of endurance[[35]], seven times having worn bonds, {bani}shed, stoned[[36]], having b{ec}ome a herald in the East and in {the} West, he received the noble[[37]] glory of his faith; having taught the whole world justice, an{d to} the end of the West[[38]] having come[[39]], and having borne witness before the rulers[[40]], thus was released from the world and journeyed to the holy place, of endurance having b{ec}ome <the> greatest model.

29. "Church's faithful":  <Anton> Birr would prefer <with> the article added, "the faithful".  But he conjectured from the wider space of the lacuna that even perhaps, "best", or, "greatest", or, "strongest" should be read.--Gallandi

30. "Pillars": Christ is the foundation of the Church, as Paul <says in the first epistle> to the Corinthians 3:11 : "For no one is able to place another foundation-stone beside the one lying, who is Jesus the Christ". Thus Cyril of Alexandria speaking on Micah about the Church: "For it has been founded upon rock, and her support is Christ[[A]] unshakable, and perpetual stability, savior and ransomer".  But the apostles here and there in the writings of the Fathers are called "pillars" of the world and of the Church.  Thus Basil at verse 4 <of> psalm 73, as is in our Catena: "Consider that the supportive power of the earth is called pillars; also pillars of Jerusalem are the apostles, according to the <thing said>: 'Pillar and support of the truth'."  Thus Chrysostom in "Ethics"[[B]], <in> homily 10 <on the epistle> to the Ephesians: "Many <it> is <available> to see as pillars standing.  For he <sc. Paul> knows to call also men pillars not only for strength, but also for beauty <since they are> providing much order, <they> having heads <covered in gold>".  Thus <in> homily 32 <on the epistle> to the Romans, where is had a most elegant encomium of the city of Rome, in which Peter and Paul suffered and were buried: "Because of this I marvel at the city, not because of the plentiful gold, not because of the columns, not because of the other pomp, but because of these pillars of the Church".  Thus Caesarius about Paul <in> response to question 20: "For <when he was> unbelieving, a wolf smiting and tearing Christians <was> Paul, now the pillar of the Church, the loud-sounding trumpet of faith".  Thus Theodoret about Peter, declares <in his oration> "On Charity": "Thus this great pillar propped up the shaking <inhabited world> and did not allow <it> to collapse completely, but he restored <it> and rendered <it> stable".  Nor only "pillars", but "ramparts" also and "towers of the Church" are they called; whence Cyril of Alexandria <says>, as is in our Catena at verse 4 <of> psalm 47: "Ramparts <they> are named, we say, the especially remarkable of the towers, <the very ones who> would be on the <outer facades> of the walls; therefore, nothing indeed <is strange>, inasmuch as indeed the Church once <has been called> a city, to say that her ramparts are the holy apostles, that is, the once-for-all teachers and <religious guides> of the holy churches; for <they> would be ramparts, the great and chosen of God's city, the <ones> <who are prominent> in it", and Chrysostom at verse 13 of the same psalm from the same Catena: "Either ramparts or towers of the Church we say are the holy apostles and evangelists".  Nevertheless, I am not unaware that sometimes also the titles of "foundation" and of "groundwork" are shared with the apostles, since evidently the Church upon the foundation, which is Christ, they founded and built, or as Ignatius to the Philadelphians says: "In the blood of the Christ with <their> own sweat and toil they established".  Whence Chrysostom <in> homily 2 on psalm 50: "Listen what he says to Peter the pillar, the groundwork, the <one> because of this called Peter, since he had been solidified in faith", and slightly later in the same place: "Pillar of the Church, the groundwork of faith, the head of the chorus of the apostles, Peter".  Thus Hesychius the presbyter <says> in an encomium of the divine Andrew in <the writings of> Photius, in the "Thousandbook": "<As> a hieratic trumpet Andrew gathered us to assembly, <he> the firstborn of the chorus of the apostles, the first-established pillar of the Church, the Peter before Peter, the foundation of the foundation, the <outset> of the beginning."--Young

31. "even unto {terrible} death": Young thus fills in the manuscript's gap; however, Wotton would prefer, "even unto death {they came}": [[Lat. trans. om.]].  Perhaps <this is> better.  Thus above <in> chapter 4: "Joseph <was persecuted> unto death, and <entered> unto slavery."--Gallandi

32. "the good apostles":  Perhaps "holy" should be written, or rather "first" or "chief", since originally through contraction "αους"[[C]], which is "first", might have been written.--Young

33. "Sustained": All editions <unanimously> <have>, "su{bmitted to}", against the reliability of the manuscript codex, which <with> Wotton <as> witness thus <reads>: "sust...", with a space of about six letters[[D]].  From this, he reads, "sust{ained}".--Gallandi

34. "Having borne witness": Regarding the time of the passion of Peter and Paul <it> is not clear.  The Roman synod under Pope Gelasius said that the heretics chatter that Peter and Paul at different times by martyrdom were crowned.  However, also thus thought Justin Martyr and Irenaeus, who <with> an anonymous Greek manuscript <as> witness, in the little book on the struggles of Peter and Paul, handed down that Paul was subjected to martyrdom five years after Peter.  Thus Philastrius reserves among the heretics <those> who would name the seven days of the week from the planets, although nevertheless it is established that the blessed Ignatius and Justin Martyr were accustomed to speak thus.--Colomiès

35. "sustained": The editions <have>, "received".  But from Wotton the manuscript exhibits, "s...ed". Therefore, he reads, "s{ustain}ed", and translates, "sustained the prize of patience".  Thus also Mill had read in his edition of the Greek New Testament, page 327.  Nevertheless, the Wottonian translation seems unusual to me, and foreign from the context; and so thus rather <it is> to be revised: "sustained the contest of patience".  For <with> Hesychius <as> witness, sometimes "prize" is the same as "race-course": which indeed properly denotes the place in which athletes would compete in race and wrestling; however, by the holy Fathers in place of the course of the present life also "contest" is sometimes elegantly used: as is <available> to see in <the writings of> <Johannes Henricus> Svicerus in the "Ecclesiastical Thesaurus", see <entries for> "Prize" and "Race-course".--Gallandi

36. "seven times having worn bonds, {thra}shed, stoned": <With> the Anglican edition's <emendation>,  "{puni}shed" expunged, I placed, "{thra}shed", on account of that <passage> of 2 Corinthians 11:25: "Three times I was thrashed, once I was stoned".  Now, we learn from this passage that Paul seven times had been thrown into chains: which I do not recall that I read in <the writings of> another author.--Cotelier

37. <From> "The noble" to "model": A learned man suspected that these <words> are from a gloss.--Edward Bernard

38. "To the end of the West": That Peter and Paul at Rome under Nero by martyrdom finished life, is more known that that it be called into doubt. Regarding the time, however, opinion is twofold: Certain ones want that on the same day and year both suffered, as Eusebius <has> from Dionysius, bishop of the Corinthians, and Caius the ecclesiastical writer: Others, on the same day, but <with> one year interjected.  See the notes of the great Scaliger on Eusebius.  Now, the anonymous (That anonymous is Symeon the Metaphrast.  The book is extant, but only in Latin, in <the writings of> Lippomano and Sauer at June 29)[[E]] author on the struggles, wanderings, life, and death of Peter and Paul, whom the lord Petraeus, the chaplain of the most illustrious Earl of Arundel, brought with himself from Greece, <this anonymous> recounts that Paul was subjected to martyrdom five years after Peter, and he praises Justin <sc. Martyr> and Irenaeus <as> the originators of this opinion, <and> his words <are> thus[[F]]: "But some say that Peter anticipated <by> one year, and received [that blessed thing, also an imperial suffering], having offered <his> life on behalf of the sheep; and that the great apostle Paul followed him, as Justin and Irenaeus say, after five whole years; and at any rate I rather believer these things".  From this treatise, since indeed an occasion not unsuitable to to this passage offers itself, <it> pleases to append several things in the order of supplement and abundance regarding Peter and our Clement, his successor, which things I think will be not unwelcome to readers: "Having remained" (evidently Peter) "in Britain some days, and having enlightened many with the word of grace, and having established churches, and having appointed bishops, presbyters, and deacons, in the twelfth year of Caesar Nero again to Rome he <came>; where having discovered also that Linus <had died>, in place of him he appointed Clement, <who was> refusing and begging <exemption from> leadership; <Peter> having persuaded whom <sc. Clement> also with sufficient words, and having urged <him> to take courage, he made <him> ascend to the chair [of his words][[G]];"  and a little later: "Therefore, the soldiers having immediately gathered all" (evidently <those> which had given <their> name to Christ) "lead <them> to the place of <judicial sentences>; and on the one hand Clement as" [see Eucherius in the testimonies about Clement][[H]] "a kinsman of Caesar they spare; but Herodion and Olympas" [about these <see> the divine Paul <in> Romans 16:11,15][[I]] "together with the multitude they led under the cut of the sword; and Peter the great apostle of the Lord" [see Theodoret. "On Charity"][[J]] "invertedly they affix to the cross, upon which also himself having borne the pains from the nails similarly to our Christ and God, he gives over his pure and undefiled soul into the hands of God.  But Clement, his student and bishop, having magnificently entombed his much-revered body, laid <it> down in a marked place."--Young

     "End of the West":  At Rome, this is in Hesperia, or Italy.--Fell

     But most friendly to Fell, John Pearson the bishop of Chester, in dissertation 1 on the succession of the first bishops of Rome, chapter 8, section 9, says, "Who ever has said that Rome was the boundaries or ends of the West?"  Then, he shows that Hispania can be understood.  Behold for yourself again another most erudite English bishop, Edward Stillingfleet, in "British Origins", chapter 1, interpreting <this to mean> Britannia, not without verisimilitude.  Consult both, for <with> the press urging on,  for one quickly writing these things <there is no time> to copy them <sc. the mentioned authors> out.--Leclerc

39. Or <the subsequent clause can be translated>, "he had said testimony in front of rulers", not doubting that blood flowed for the confession of truth.  Now, even if the word "rulers" sounds <like> many emperors, nevertheless here by a not unusual mode of speaking it designates the sole Nero.--Coustant

40. "Rulers": John Pearson, in a praised passage, understands prefects, which sort were in the final year of Nero the two <praetorian prefects> Tigellinus and Sabinus, and Helius[[K]] with full power.  Consult him <sc. Pearson>.--Leclerc

My Notes
A. The word, "groundwork", is absent from Young's citation of Cyril's commentary on Micah 7:10-11.  The text apparently should read, "and her support is Christ, unshakable foundation and perpetual stability, savior and ransomer".

B.  Young's note says, "Chrysostomus in Ethico", which I understand as meaning that "Ethics" is the title of a compilation that contains the cited homily of Chrysostom's.  I haven't been able to confirm this.

C. This is the letter alpha with an adjectival suffix corresponding to the modified noun.

D. The six letter space obviously does not correspond to the English here, although I have tried to render something of the problem in the Greek.

E.  This is apparently Migne's parenthetical updating of Young's note.  The date listed refers to the feast-day entry in Sauer's (Surius) critical edition of hagiographies, "De Probatis Sanctorum Historiis".  But the author is there listed as Sophronius, patriarch of Jerusalem; however, this attribution is now considered spurious.  I'm not sure how Symeon the Metaphrast came to be cited by this note, except perhaps by error.

F.  I cannot find the document quoted in the rest of this note, although I suspect that it may be in one of the Arundel manuscripts.  The work apparently bears the title rendered in Latin as, "De Certaminibus, Peregrinationibus, Vita et Morte Petri et Pauli".

G.  This phrase seems a bit strange.  I interpret "the chair of his words" to mean, the chair that his words persuaded Clement to accept.

H. Migne's bracketed note.

I. Migne's bracketed note.

J. Migne's bracketed note.

K. The freedman Nero left in power when he went to visit Greece.