Thursday, December 20, 2012

PG001(col. 229-231): First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: Chapter 11.

(From the 1765 Venice edition of  André Galland's "Library of the Ancient Fathers", Tome 1, folio-size, p. 9)
Author:  André Galland
Googlebooks PDF: PG001

Chapter 11

     Because of hospitality[[70]] and reverence Lot was saved from Sodom, <when> all the surrounding region <was judged>[[71]] through fire and brimstone; the Lord having made clear beforehand that he does not leave behind <those who hope> in him, but <those who are> <otherwise inclined>[[A]] he places in punishment and discomfort.   For <although> <his> wife <who had departed with him>[[73]] <was> <of other thought>[[A]] and not in agreement, <she> was <made> into this sign, such that <she> <became> a pillar of salt until this day[[74]]; <for the purpose that it> be known to all that the double-minded and the doubters about the power of God become a judgment and a sign for all generations.

70. "Because of hospitality": <See> Clement of Alexandria <in the cited passage>.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

71. "Judged": Others have thought that this world should be corrected, which <word> Wotton keenly observes and thus translates the whole passage: "When the entire region in the <surrounding area> <underwent> punishment by fire and brimstone".  Indeed, he also adds that the holy Father far from doubt looks back to 2 Peter 2:6, clearly a splendid testimony that that Epistle from the beginning onward was canonical and received by the Roman Church.  Leclerc approves the Wottonian opinion and copies <it> out.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

    --"When all the region was judged":  Lord Bois thinks that "was overthrown" should be read, <since> history and <word order>[[B]] <support> <this>, Genesis 19:25 : "And he overthrew these cities and all the surrounding region"; or "was burned down".  I think that the simple "was burned" should be substituted, and I followed that reading in <my> Latin translation; however, I do not deny that "was judged" can be retained, indeed even in a very broad sense, for "was burned down".  For "to judge" for "to condemn", and "judgment" for "condemnation", very often in the New Testament and in this writing are employed.  <The verse> 2 Peter 2:6 : "And he condemned the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah, burning <them> to ashes", seems to favor the first and last reading.  Now, regarding the desolation and sterility of that region, once most fertile and most pleasant, which followed the divine vengeance of crimes and of impiety and the fiery and sulfurous rain sent down from heaven, in <the writings of> Chrysostom, homily 8 on the first <epistle> to the Thessalonians, is a most elegant passage: which <it> will not displease to append here, in thanks of those for whom <it> will be not less pleasing to read these things than <it> was joyful for us first to note and to excerpt:  "Therefore indeed this <sc. region>, the <one> thus fertile and rivaling all the lands, the <one> outstripping in abundance the garden of God, is now emptier than all the deserts, and on the one hand trees stand and bear fruit, but on the other hand the fruit is a reminder of the wrath of God; for pomegranates (both the wood I say and the fruit) having radiant appearance, and providing to the ignorant all hopes; but if they should be taken into <the> hands, <when> broken in two no fruit, but dust and much ash they show stored away inside. Such also is the whole land; and if you search for stone, you will find <it> <has been burnt to ashes>; and why do I say rock, and wood, and land?  where even both air and water partook of the misfortune.  For just as <when> a body <was set on fire> and <was burnt up>, the shape <surely> remains, and the outline in the fire's appearance and <the> bulk, and the <bodily> proportion, but the power <is> no longer;  But thus <it> is there to see land, butt having nothing of land, but all ash; trees and fruits, but having nothing of trees nor fruits; air and water, but nothing of air nor water; in fact even these things <have been burnt to ash>."  Thus <writes> Tertullian in the "Apology": "A fiery rain demolished Sodom and Gomorrah; the land still smells of burning, and if anywhere in that place fruits of trees are perceived, <as far as> by the eyes, they notwithstanding turn to ash upon contact."  And the same <sc. Tertullian> <in> "On the <philosoper's> cloak": "Look to Palestine, where the river Jordan <is> arbiter of boundaries, an enormous wasteland, <it> is both a destitute region and a field in vain, and[[C]] cities formerly; and a dense populace," etc.--Young

     --Neither should "was judged" be changed against the reliability of the manuscript codex, nor should "was condemned" be interpreted, for no one would have said, "condemned through fire";  but this is the antecedent <used> in place of  the consequent, the judgment <used> in place of the punishment, and for that reason "was judged" is <used> just as "was punished".  Nothing is more frequent in Scripture than the words "I judge" for that which is "to punish", and "judgment" for that which is "punishment".   I marvel that the memory of this matter for learned men did not come to mind immediately.  Therefore, <it> should have been translated: When the whole "surrounding region" (of Jordan) "had undergone punishment by fire and sulfur"; not "burnt down", as Young <translates>, or "was condemned", as Cotelier <translates>.--Leclerc

72. "The Lord having made clear beforehand": Wotton would prefer, "Since the Lord had made clear beforehand"[[D]].  However, that this phrasing of the holy Father's is customary for the most Atticist writers, such that <it> should not be changed, Blackwall proves against his fellow-countryman in "The Authors of Sacred Classics Defended and Illustrated", tome 1, page 59; whom Davies follows.--Gallandi

73. "For <...> who had departed with him": Thus <reads> the manuscript from Wotton.  But Young along with the remaining <printed> editions, <with> "for" placed in the margin, exhibits "alongside"[[E]] in the text.--The same <sc. Gallandi>

74. "A pillar of salt until this day": That he has seen the statue, Josephus testifies <in> book 1, chapter 12 of "Antiquities", and <there is> much mention of it in <the writings of> Hebrew, Greek, and Latin authors.  Noteworthy is the testimony of Irenaeus <in> book 4 "Against Heresies", chapter 51: "Lot left his wife on the boundary, a statue of salt up to the present day."  And at the end of the chapter: "And when these things were done, the wife had remained in Sodom, already not corruptible flesh, but a statue of salt always remaining, and through those natural things which are the habit of man, showing that also the Church, which is the salt of the earth, is left below in the boundary of the earth, enduring things which are human: and while often whole limbs are taken away from it, the statue of salt perseveres, which is the support of faith, strengthening and sending forth sons to their own Father."  Which <remarks> would seem rather obscure, unless the verses of the poem entitled "Sodom", which finds place among the works of Tertullian and Cyprian, brought forth <light>:[[F]]

For, the companion spouse, woe is me, badly then also the law[[G]]
The woman not enduring, to the divine rumblings of heaven
<Her> daring eyes in vain <she> alone turned back;
Nor <would she be able> to say what she saw, and at once in that place
Changed into a fragile salt, <she> herself stood <as> a sepulcher,
And the very image conserving for itself the form without body
Persists still and indeed in an uncovered position under the sky,
Neither by the rains melted away in place, nor overthrown by the winds.
Indeed also if any foreigner might cut off the form,
Straightaway by provision from <its very self> <it> fills out the wounds.
It is said <that> even living now in another body, with her sex's
Habitual blood <she> <marks off the end to> bountiful months.

<See, if you please>, the same Irenaeus, chapter 64 of the same book, <and also> Prudentius's "The Origin of Sin" <at> verse 740 and following.--Cotelier

     --"Pillar of salt": Cyril of Jerusalem <in> the first mystigogical catechesis <writes>: "But the wife of this one <sc. Lot> has become a pillar of salt <exposed to public scorn> for eternity, having the <reputation> of wicked choice and relapse."  In contrast, Abraham "for the universe is established <as> a pillar of faith and obedience," as Basil says in the "Monastic Constitutions".--Young

     --Josephus, a writer of the same century with Clement, <in> book 1 of "Antiquities" from the reliability of <his own> eyes makes this very thing evident: "But I have investigated it <sc. the pillar>; for it still persists."  Lest we think which matter less probable, Tertullian assigns a very much wondrous explanation of its durability; evidently, that at constant intervals <it> is repaired, and "if any foreigner might cut off the form, by provision from its very self the wounds <it> straightaway fills out"[[H]], which, <when> in fact also blood <is poured out>, declares <its> origin and destruction.  Nor is <the matter> stopped here, but also writers of the present age (how rightly, let other judge) assert that this lively statue even now still remains, and as though built from its own salt.--Fell

     --But Colomiès sends us away to page 109 of his "Sacred Observations"[[I]].  See also the Dissertation of Jean Leclerc on the saline statue, where this tale <industriously> is weighed out.--<sc. Migne?>

My Notes
A.   Both of these words contain the prefix "hetero-", and the context clearly yields a negative sense; however, the precise force of the prefix is unclear.  For a stronger negative force, "heteroklines" may also mean "contrary", and "heterognomon" may mean "fickle".

B.  See note B here.

C.  Instead of "et" = "and", other editions read "at" = "but".  This seems preferable, and the error is easily accounted for by the juxtaposition of "est et".

D.  The text has a nominative subject with a nominative aorist participle.  As such, it lacks a main verb.  Wotton's solution is to shift both into the genitive to make the phrase a genitive absolute.

E. This emendation would change the text in the following ways: Remove the initial "For" and adding another explicit preposition "alongside" to the preposition "with" in the compound verb "having come out with".

F. The poem as a whole may be found in the volume on Tertullian in Migne's Patrologia Latina series.  Also, although the sense seems clear enough, the first two lines contain some unresolved corruptions.  See the critical apparatus here.

G. The genitive "legis" seems to be the object of the participle "patiens".

H.  Fell clearly paraphrases the words of the poem.

I.  I don't know what he says there.  But if I look it up, I'll put it here.

Thursday, December 13, 2012

PG001(col. 227-230): First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: Chapter 10.

(From the 1765 Venice edition of  André Galland's "Library of the Ancient Fathers", Tome 1, folio-size, p. 9)

Author:  André Galland

Googlebooks PDF: PG001

Chapter 10

     Abraham, called the friend[[67]][[71b]], was found faithful in <that> he <became> obedient to the words of God.  He through obedience went out from his land, and from his kindred, and from the house of his father, so that having abandoned little land, weak kindred, and a small house[[68]], he would inherit the promises of God.  For he says to him: "Go away from your land, and from your kindred, and from the house of your father, to the land which I shall show to you; and I will make you into a great people, and I will bless you, and I will magnify your name, and you will be blessed; and I will bless those blessing you, and I will curse those cursing you; and all the tribes of the land will be blessed[[69]] in you"[[72b]].  And again <when> he <went away> from Lot, God said to him: "Having looked up with your eyes, look away from the place where now you are, towards north, and south, and east, and the sea; because all the land which you see, to you I will give it, and to your seed until eternity.  And I will make your seed as the sand  of the land;[[A]] if someone is able to count out the sand of the land, also your seed he will count out"[[73b]].  And again he says: "God led out Abraham and said to him: 'Look up to heaven and count the stars, if you are able to count them out, thus will be your seed'.  But Abraham trusted God, and it was considered of him <as> justice"[[74b]].  Because of trust and hospitality a son was given to him in old age[[75b]], and through obedience he led him forth[[76b]] <as> a sacrifice to God at one of the mountains which he indicated to him.

Biblical Citations
71b. 2 Chronicles 20:7; Judith 8:22; in the Latin translation of Isaiah 41:8; James 2:23

72b. Genesis 12:1,2,3

73b. Genesis 13:14,15,16

74b. Genesis 15:5,6

75b. Genesis 21

76b. Genesis 22

67."Abraham <...> the friend": Add with Young <the words>, "of God".  Thus also <writes> Clement of Alexandria <in the cited passage> <when> copying out these words.  However, Davies[[?]] read: "Abraham, God's friend", thinking that from the <abbreviated> word "GD" easily flowed "the"[[B]].  See below, chapter 17.--Gallandi

     "Abraham, called the friend":  Perhaps, "of God", should be added, as <it> is <in> James 2:23, "and was called friend of God".--Young

68. This <means>, which completely depended upon few.  For to Abraham were only two brothers, Aran and Nachor.  But Aran had already died, <with his> son Lot having been abandoned.  And so with Lot, from this stock remained Nachor and Abraham, who indeed on account of the sterility of Sarah lacked sons.--Coustant

69. "And <...> will be blessed": Thus <reads> the manuscript, as <in> the Septuagint.  Thus also <print> the remaining editions beyond Leclerc and Coustant, where "and" is omitted.--Gallandi

My Notes
A. One of Migne's editions has the wrong text in the line after this point.  In fact, it duplicates the text of the half-line just below it.  Even in the printed age we have the same "scribal" errors.

B. A common abbreviation for the word "theou", meaning "of God", would have been the two letters theta and upsilon.  In the uncial (i.e., square capital letter) script prevalent around the 3rd-4th centuries, the capital theta may have been confused for a capital omicron, which would just be the word "the", with the upsilon having somehow dropped out.

Saturday, December 1, 2012

PG001(col. 227-228): First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: Chapter 9.

(From the 1765 Venice edition of  André Galland's "Library of the Ancient Fathers", Tome 1, folio-size, p. 9)
Author:  André Galland
Googlebooks PDF: PG001

Chapter 9

     For this reason let us submit[[61]] to his magnificent and glorious counsel, and becoming supplicants of his mercy and goodness, let us fall prostrate and <turn ourselves> towards his pities, having abandoned vain laboring[[62]], and wrath, and the <thing> leading to death <, namely,> envy[[63]][[68b]].  Let us look intently[[64]] at <the ones who have> perfectly <performed public service> to his magnificent glory.  Let us take Enoch[[69b]][[A]], who, found just in obedience, was transported, and his death was not found.  Noah[[70b]], found faithful, through his <public service> heralded regeneration to the world[[66]], and through him the Lord preserved the animals <which has come> in concord into the ark.

Biblical (and other) Citations
68b. Clement of Alexandria, "Miscellanies", book 4, page 516 abundantly touches upon the following <passages>.

69b. Genesis 5:24, Sirach 44:16, Hebrews 11:5

70b. Genesis 6:8; 7:1, Sirach 44:17, Hebrews 11:7, 1 Peter 3:20, 2 Peter 2:5

61. "Let us submit": Wotton testifies that this is the manuscript's true reading.  Thus also read Mill and Grabe, which word the holy Father clearly uses <in> chapter 7 and 10 <and> rather often elsewhere.  The <printed> editions all <unanimously> followed Young <by printing>, "Let us listen".--The same <sc. Cotelier>

     "For this reason let us submit": Lord Bois advised that "let us submit" should be read, to whose conjecture I myself willingly subscribe, although sometimes "to listen" is employed for "to submit", as <in> Isaiah 45: "to subject the gentiles before him"[[C]], and in the Septuagint it is found joined to the third case[[D]], but with a different meaning, as <in> Proverbs 15:32[[E]]: "But he hears the prayers of the just", and <in> Genesis 16:11 : "Because the Lord heard your abasement".--Young

62.  "Vain laboring":  Perhaps <it should be emended to>, "vain speaking"--The same <sc. Young>

63. "And the <thing> leading...<, namely,> envy": Read, "And envy <which leads>..."[[F]].  The holy Father earlier, <in> chapter 3 and 5, takes the word "envy" <in> the masculine gender, as is <right>, although a copyist throughout <almost all of> this Epistle has expressed the same word <in> the neuter gender, as observed by Mill and Wotton.[[G]]

64. "Let us look intently", etc.: Compare these things with Clement of Alexandria, page 516, "Miscellanies", book 4, from the words, "Therefore, let us look intently at <the ones who have> perfectly <performed public service>", etc., and you will recognize, pious reader, with me that from that <sc. the "Miscellanies> <this> sweetest epistle was interpolated, and that the the interpolator diligently took care that it was long more than "great and wondrous", by which praises Eusebius adorns it.--Edward Bernard

65. By which evidently through baptism we are reborn.  That the ark by which Noah was saved was a symbols of the same regeneration, also is noted <in> 1 Peter 3:20.--Coustant

66.  "Heralded regeneration to the world": The regeneration that is accomplished through the bath of baptism, <with> the holy Spirit operating, should not be understood by the word "regeneration" in this passage, but <what should be understood is> the restoration of the human race and the new generation:  and in this sense <in the writings of> Philo the Jew and others it is found.  Also, the passage of Matthew 19:28, "in the regeneration", thus should be interpreted.  Evidently, when heaven, earth, and sea have passed away, as is <written in> Revelation 21, also <he> who sits in the throne will create all things new, "new heaven, new earth, and new everything".--Young

My Notes
A.  Given the recently discovered support for the importance of the figure of Enoch in Judaism around the time of Christ (cf. Enoch Seminar), the fact that Clement mentions Enoch as a prime example for the faithful may be an argument in favor of the both the genuineness and early date of this epistle.

B.  The material in book 4, chapter 17, of the Stromata ("Miscellanies") appears to quote extensively from this point of the epistle onward.  This raises the question of what in the Stromata is original and what has been added by Clement of Alexandria or a later writer.

C. The verb translated as "to subject" in Isaiah is "epakousai", which is a form of the word earlier (and normally) translated as "to listen/hear".  Young says that this is an example of "epakousai" being used for "hupakousai", but he seems to be mistaken.  "Hupakousai" normally means "to submit", and it appears never to denote any dominant/aggressive action such as subjection.  Young's argument is not clear, but it seems to rely partially upon the difference in case of the direct object of these verbs in the various examples he gives (cf. note D below).
D. "Joined to the third case" appears to mean that the direct object of the verb is in the dative case.  In the Isaiah passage, the direct object was in the accusative.

E.  This appears to be verse 29 in modern editions.

F.  The proposed change alters the case of the article and the participle, so the full phrase could be rendered, "and envy, which leads to death".

G.  This note is not attributed to anyone.  Perhaps it is an erroneous omission, or perhaps it is Migne's own?

Saturday, October 13, 2012

PG001(col. 225-228): First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: Chapter 8.

(From the 1765 Venice edition of  André Galland's "Library of the Ancient Fathers", Tome 1, folio-size, p. 9)
Author:  André Galland
Googlebooks PDF: PG001

Chapter 8

     The <public ministers> of the grace of God through the holy Spirit spoke about repentance, and even himself the Master of all spoke with an oath about repentance: For <as> I live, says <the> Lord, I do not wish the death of the sinner, as the repentance[[63b]]; adding[[56]] also a good thought; Repent, House of Israel[[57]], from your lawlessness[[64b]].  Say to my people: If even your sins are from the earth to the sky, and if <they> are redder than scarlet dye and blacker than sackcloth, both turn towards me from <your> whole heart[[65b]], and say, <'>Father <'>, I will heed you as <to a holy people>[[58]][[66b]].  And in another passage he speaks thus: Be cleansed and become pure, remove the evils from your souls, from before my eyes: cease from your evils, learn to do <what is> beautiful, seek out judgment, rescue the violated, judge <preference for> the orphan, and vindicate the widow, and <come here> and let us dispute[[59]], he says[[60]]: Even if your sins are as crimson, as snow I will whiten <them>; and if <they> are as scarlet, as wool I will whiten <them>.  And if you <thus> will and heed me, you will eat the good things of the earth; but if you do not <thus> will nor heed me, a knife will devour you; for the mouth of the Lord has spoken these things[67b]][.  Therefore, wishing that all <those who love him> partake of repentance, he confirmed <them> with his all-powerful will.

63b. Ezekiel 33:11 [[A]]  

64b. Ezekiel 18:30

65b. Isaiah 1:18

66b. Jeremiah 3:19, 22

67b. Isaiah 1:16, 20

56. The final words of this sentence Clement of Alexandria in book 1 <of> "Pedagogy", chapter 10, under the name of Ezekiel thus cites: "For he says through Ezekiel: If you will have been converted from the whole heart and will have said, Father, I will hear you as a holy people".--Coustant

57. "Repent, House of Israel": The <actual> <word order>[[B]] <is> otherwise; however regarding this passage and other testimonies of Sacred Scripture, which frequently are cited in this letter, it should be observed <both> that many passages are sometimes joined into one (which also not rarely is done by other Fathers, nor do the apostles themselves lack examples), and that several times the sense and not the <exact> words are expressed, both <of> which <things> in this passage are <available> to detect.  But indeed among the words themselves not a small difference often occurs; however, it would be tedious to note the individual variations, and <it> is obvious to anyone from comparison with the publication <of the Septuagint>, which <is available> and is rubbed by the hands of all.  For which reason, we leave this task to others, and the damage, if any thence arises, we will with more benefit later weigh out, when a new edition of the <Greek bible> from the manuscript copy of Thecla, which of all <manuscripts>, however many today are in Europe, is by the best and oldest, by the auspices of divine authority and by the grace and favor of my lord the most serene king, it is given to put forth into light.--Young

58. "To a holy people":  Clement of Alexandria <in> "Pedagogy", book 1, chapter 10, has, "of a holy people"[[C]], where he praises these words under the name of Ezekiel, whose the earlier <words> also appear to be.  And so hence is supported the conjecture of Cotelier[[D]].  Furthermore, that <notable> passage of Ezekiel either is absent from our books, or it was taken from another volume of Ezekiel which he, <as> Josephus <witnesses>, had written, and which the Athanasian, or rather Eusebian, Synopsis[[E]] reckons among the apocryphal works.  Thus Justin Martyr in <his> "Dialogue with Trypho" praises the passage of Ezra , translated into Latin <in the writings of> Lactantius, book 4, chapter 18 <of the "Divine Institutes">, which <passage> you may seek for in vain in our codices.  Clement of Alexandria <in> "Miscellanies", book 5, cites another <passage> from Zephaniah, which does not appear in his vaticination.  I suspect this passage was taken from the prophecy of Zephaniah or <from> the Apocalypse mentioned among the apocryphal books in the canon of the Scriptures attributed to Nicephorus the patriarch of Constantinople[[F]], and in the manuscript of the Barrocian library.--Colomiès

59. "Let us dispute":  Mill thus reads in the manuscript congruently to the Hebrew truth, <at> Isaiah 1:18.  The editions <print> "Let us converse"[[G]].  Others along with the codices Alexandrinus and Vaticanus <print> "Let us disfute"[[H]].--Gallandi

"And come here, and let us dispute": Thus <has> the Aldine edition.  But in others <is printed> either, "And come here, let us dispute", or, "And come here, and let us converse", as Procopius[[I]] <has>, or, "And come here, let us converse".  Of course, by the Hebrew verb each is signified[[J]], chiding and dispute; which to <meanings> are indeed related.  The codices of Hesychius appear to lie in error <since they have>, "Let us disfute: Let us come to the refutation of one another", instead of, "Let us dispute"[[H]].  Now, <in the writings of> Basil and Chrysostom the <reading> "Let us converse" in the text is suspect[[G]], since the commentators <on these texts> suppose "Let us dispute" <is written>.  Already Hilary indeed at Psalm 2:5 <writes>: "And come, let us reprove".  But in the preface to Psalm 119: "And come, let us dispute".  And the not dissimilar variation in Micah, chapter 6, verse 2, "He will dispute".  A third reading is exhibited by Tertullian, and it is corrupt.  For he correctly had translated in the final chapter of book 1 to <his> wife: "And come, let us dispute"; in book 4 against Marcion, chapter 14, supported by defective books he translates: "And come, <let us be united in council>", which is, "Let us interchange"[[K]]: and <that word> perhaps should be restored to Chrysostom in that <passage>: "Let a woman of no less than sixty years be chosen," etc.[[L]],  where he brings forth the passage of the prophet and expounds through <the word> "to be reconciled" and "to have been reconciled".  Furthermore, when I seek the testimony of Isaiah <in the writings of> the holy Fathers, I have found two distorted passages, about which it will not be superfluous to bring to mind, namely, <passage> of Irenaeus and of Lucifer.  <The former> in book 4 <of> "Against Heresies", chapter 32, says: "Be cleansed," etc.[[M]].  "For not like a mute man, as many dare to say, <does he deviate>" (that is, turn away from himself) "their sacrifice; but pitying their blindness," etc.  What <does he mean>, "a mute man"?  I <was thinking to conjecture>, "angered man", having as the basis of conjecture the preceding and following things.  <The statement> precedes: "Then, lest anyone think that, on account of that he is angered, he refuses these things, he brings counsel, giving <it> to him."  <The statement> follows: "For if being angered he rejected these their sacrifices".  <In the writings of> Lucifer, book 1, to the emperor Constantius, on behalf of St. Athanasius, the prophetic words should be: "Be cleansed, be pure, remove malices from your souls," not "from your enemies".--Cotelier

60. "Says": Add <after this the word> "Lord", from the Septuagint.--Gallandi

My Notes
A. This appears not to be the Septuagint text.  Clement's citations substitute the Greek "metanoein" for the Septuagint's "apostrephein".  The former seems to emphasize an internal change of mind/heart, whereas the latter evokes the physical metaphor of turning back/returning.  Significance is subject to debate.

B. The Latin phrase, "verba contextus", literally means, "words of the connected weave".

C. The issue here is that the text has this phrase in dative, whereas Clement of Alexandria has it in the genitive.  The genitive is normally the case for direct objects of verbs of hearing, so the dative, if it is not an error, may reflect an attempt to render literally the underlying Hebrew idiom.

D. I don't know what this conjecture is.

E. The Athanasian Synopsis is a description of the canonical books of the Bible as purportedly written by St. Athanasius.  There seems to be general agreement that it is not his work, and although I don't see the point made in Migne's preface to it in his 4th volume on St. Athanasius, some people believe it to actually be the work of Eusebius.

F.  I gather this is the Stichometry of Nicephorus.

G. The words for "dispute" and "converse" are similarly spelled, so the issue here is about sorting out potential confusion in the manuscripts.

H.  "Dispute" vs. "Disfute".  This last reading is a different spelling of the note's headword.  The issue, explained further in the following note, is whether or not the proper form of this word contains the letter theta or not.  The current consensus seems to be that the form without theta is incorrect, so I've rendered it "disfute" with an F.

I.  There are a few people named Procopius who this could be.  The one mentioned here is probably Procopius of Gaza, but I haven't verified.

J.  While the Hebrew root for the word in question does have both of these meanings, the Niphal stem apparently carries only the meaning "dispute", as in "dispute/discuss".  Cf. BDB lexicon.

K.  This is yet a third word with similar spelling as "dispute" and "converse".

L. 1 Tim 5:9-10

M.  Isaiah 1:16

PG001(col. 221-226): First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: Chapter 7.

(From the 1765 Venice edition of  André Galland's "Library of the Ancient Fathers", Tome 1, folio-size, p. 9)
Author:  André Galland
Googlebooks PDF: PG001

Chapter 7

     These things, beloved[[45]], we enjoin not only admonishing not only you, but also remindi{ng} ourselves[[46]]; for we are in the same aren{a}[[47]][[A]] and the same contest lie{s} upon us.  Thus, let us abandon empty a{nd} vain thoughts, and let {us} accede to the glorious and august rule[[49]] of our {holy voca}tion[[48]].  <{Let} us {behold>} what <is> good, and what <is> pleasing {and se}emly before the <one who cre{ated}> us.  <Let us {look intently}>[[50]] toward the blood of the Christ, {and} let us {see} how precious to God is his {blood}[[51]], which, poured out on account of our {salv}ation, offered to all the wo{rld} grace of repentance.  <Let us {hark back}>[[52]] to all the generations, {and} <let us {clo}sely observe>} that in generation {and} generation the Lord g{a}ve occasion[[53]] of repentance to those wishing to be converted to him[[54]].  Noah heralded repentance[[61b]], and the ones[[55]] who heeded were saved.  Jonah to the Ninevites heralded catastrophe[[62b]], but the ones who repented of their sins, having supplicated God, made atonement, and they acquired salvation, although being foreign to God.

61b. Genesis 7; Wisdom 10:4; Ecclesiastes 44,17; Hebrews 11:7; 1 Peter 3:20; 2 Peter 2:5

62b. John 3

45. "These things, beloved": Here, <with> an altered style, the roughness of the previous reprimand he with a milder address softens and mollifies, "and inserting lighter <words>", as the golden Mouth somewhere says, "and placing himself <in the middle>, he smooths the vehemence of the castigation."  And in this he fulfills the role of the true, faithful, and restless pastor, to whom by the Apostle both duties, that is, of encouraging and castigating, are equally joined:  to neglect either of which by fear or fawning, "not of <the> teacher", as Chrysostom on the Epistle to the Galatians <says>, "but <it> would be of <the> corrupter and <the> enemy."  Thus Christ by his own example instructed the apostles, whom sometimes he praises and proclaims <as> blessed, but sometimes sharply rebukes and reprimands.  Thus the Apostle taught Clement, who <sc. Paul> oftentimes in his epistles (as Chrysostom in the same place <as cited above says>) "treading according to the footstep of the teacher embroiders the word towards the need of the pupils, now on the one hand burning and cutting, now on the other adding mild remedies, now on the one hand coming <with the> rod, now on the other <with> love and a spirit of meekness," as he <sc. Paul> says of his very self to the Corinthians.[[B]]--The same <sc. Young>

46. "Reminding": Thus <Henry> Wotton and Davies correct "reminding"[[C]], the manuscript fault from an error of a librarian.  More rightly than Leclerc, whose emendation, "intending to remind", in the future <tense> less aptly coheres with the preceding, "admonishing".--Gallandi

47. "We are in the same arena": <The word> "arena" indicates not only the place of struggle and contest, but the struggle itself, and with this meaning should Balsamon be understood at canon 63 of the sixth synod in Trullo[[D]], where he thus says about Simeon the Metaphrast: "And so grace to the <lately deceased> blessed <sc. Metaphrast>, to the one <who embellished <sc. through writing>> the martyrial arenas in defense of the truth, with much toil and sweat in praise of God and everlasting glory of the holy martyrs."  The translator translates 'ditches', but not quite correctly.  Thus here and there in <the writings of> Chrysostom <this word is used>: "We were called towards greater arenas", and "we stripped naked <sc. as athletes in a gymnasium> towards larger arenas".  Also, sometimes our life on the earth, miserable, laborious, full of annoyances and difficulties, and met with various temptations of the antagonist, is metaphorically not inelegantly sketched with this word.  Thus the Ephraim the Syrian's Greek metaphrast, who is extant in the library of a most noble and illustrious man, the earl of Arundel and marshal of England[[E]], says: "On Virginity: For this life seems like an arena; contestants perfect in their eagerness fearlessly show themselves in the arena, but the cowardly and flaccid in their flaccidity flee out of the arena."  And in the same place: "Without struggle no one is crowned in life, and in the government of training, without struggle no one is able to attain <the> unfading crown and eternal life."  Thus Chrysostom <in> homily 23 on the earlier <epistle> to the Corinthians: "For also it was necessary <for> one remaining in the arena, to contend and not, after the assembly <has been> dispersed, to weep unprofitably", where <this> passage regarding useless penance after death is remarkable.  Which opinion Ephraim the Syrian <in the work> "On repentance" supports: "Here, therefore, let us lack until it is <the opportune time>, thus <as long as> we are in this life, we are able always to shame God, <but it> is easy for us also to knock on the door of his compassion;  Let us pour out tears until it is <the opportune time> to receive tears, so that having gone off to the life there, we may not weep uselessly; there tears count towards nothing.  For as much as we wish, that much also grants God the good;  here he hears our appeals, and here he grants, <when> we are supplicating; here he obliterates our crimes, <when> we are conciliatory;[[F]] here <is there opportunity for> appeal, but there <there is> compensatory judgment;  here <there is> acquiescence, there <there is> inquisition.  Here <there is> magnanimity, there <there is> severity; here <accommodation>, but there exactness; here <individual freedom>, there <the> court of law; here amnesty, there oppression; here enjoyment, there torture", etc.  Also Basil <in> "To a fallen virgin", tome 2, page 755.  Also, Asterius <in> the homily "On the rich man and Lazarus" <says>: "But the proper <opportune time> having come, and the inexorable command tears it <sc. the soul> away <from> the communion <with> the body, a reckoning will come of the <things which have been lived>, and unprofitable repentance, after <its> usefulness; for regret aids then, whenever the <one changing one's mind> has ability of correction," and Justin Martyr in the "Apology" <says>: "In <Hades> repentance is <too late>."  But let us return to the path, and let us no longer wander beyond the arena.  Cyril of Alexandria <in> book 1 of "Delicacies" <recounts> that God grants nothing to the saints without toil and sweat, and that <no one> by wishes and desires before "physical exercises"[[G]] <does He> crown "and enrich with the bounty of athletes."  And Clement <of Alexandria> in the "Exhoration" <says>: "Therefore, conspicuously disrobing in the race-course of truth, let us nobly strive" (perhaps, strive)[[H]], "<while> on the one hand the holy word is officiating, and on the other hand the Lord of all is <presiding over the game>; for the contest for you in not small, immortality is set forth <as a prize>."  And <in> book 7 of "Miscellanies": "This is the true athlete, he <who> in the great race-course, the beautiful universe, <is> crowned <for> the true victory against all passions; for the <game-presider> <is> the all-powerful God, and the umpire <is> the only-begotten Son of God, and the spectators <are> angels, and the <all-encompassing decathelon>[[I]] <is> not against blood and flesh, but the spiritual powers of <deeply emotional> passions <which powers are> operating through the flesh."  Which passage Tertullian most elegantly expresses "to the Martyrs": "You <women> are about to undergo the good struggle, in which the living God is the <games-presider>, the holy Spirit <is> the <trainer>, [the crown <is> of eternity, the prize <is> of angelic <essence> <and> citizenship in the heavens <and> glory <in eternity>][[J]].  And so your overseer Jesus Christ, who anointed you with the Spirit, also to this arena has led <you> forth," etc.  But it should be feared lest, while we we dwell rather long upon the explanation of this word and amass various testimonies, we appear to certain ones <to be> <rather tedious>: for which reason, this arena having been surmounted, later only desultorily from here on forth will we sample certain things: for to advance [on foot][[K]] and to pursue individual items rather carefully, even if we wished this most of all, neither does the printer suffer, who presses <on our> heels and complains that his services are idle.--Young

     Although we know from Julius Pollux that this word was said "properly about pentathletes <who are> good at leaping", and <the words> "arena" and "rod" are joined together with it, as evidently "a rod" is "the measure of a jump, and the boundary <is> the <dug line>", which words we see here at once placed, we prefer to translate "the <trench>" <as> arena, since indeed although in the stadium all kinds of exercises were celebrated, nevertheless [he <Paul?> seemed by <his own> rule to attend to the runners][[L]].  But since regarding the usage of <the word> "trenches" in authors <dealing with competitive games> <there is> quite deep silence, I consider it should briefly be noted that in the jump of the athletes not only <was> reckoning had <of> up to what point someone sprang out forwards, but that he leaped upwards; by which degree when <it> was sufficiently done, precisely then was it allowed to contend about the measured-out space; since indeed whoever sought gains, <with> the obstacles of furrows having been passed over, was said to have played a vain effort and <to be> "<out of bounds>".--Fell

48. "Of the holy vocation": Mill testifies, <that> which Wotton did not see, that the manuscript <is> thus, "of t...tion"[[M]], and the gap admits not but six or seven letters.  And so for that reason he would prefer to restore, "of c{omple}tion"; which among the holy Fathers signifies baptism,whose rule first of all requires the renunciation of empty and vain thoughts, about which this discussion <is>.  You may see <Johannes Henricus> Svicerus's "Ecclesiastical Thesaurus", see <entry for> "completion".--Gallandi

49. "Rule": The word, <if any is so>, <is> <sports-related>, as noted above,[[N]], in which manner <it> is almost perpetually used by the divine Paul  <in> 2 Cor 10:13, 15, 16 <and> Gal 6:16; almost the same as line, and sometimes as trench[[O]].  Therefore, Young sufficiently unhappily rendered <it as> "norm"; we have substituted, "line".--Fell

50. "Let us look intently": Thus Young <restores the text> along with the <published versions>.  Or <should it> rather <be restored>, "Let us {look off}"?  Perhaps the holy Father looks back to that <passage of> Hebrews 12:2 : "Looking off to the founder and completer of faith, Jesus".--Gallandi

51. "How precious to God is his blood": Clement seems here <to be imitating> St. Peter, who also himself <in> 1 <Pet> 1:19 calls the blood of <Our Lord Jesus Christ> "precious".--The same <sc. Gallandi>

52. "Let us hark back": Thus <restores> Wotton, contending that that word, or another, "<let us go back>", coincide more with the <phrase> "to all the generations", which already went past; and he translates: "Let us run back to all generations".  Perhaps <this is> better than "Let us {look intently}", which here again Young and the <published versions> present.  [<Davies?>] would prefer, "Let us {go up}".--The same <sc. Gallandi>

53. "Occasion of repentance": Perhaps <this should be emended to read> "form" <sc. of repentance>, that is, "pattern", as is verse 15, chapter 44 of the Wisdom of Sirach, to which passage our author seems to have looked back.--Young

54. More elegantly indeed Cotelier thus translates these <words>: "Let us run back to all ages of the world, and let us learn that in each age penitance's," etc.; but it seemed more satisfactorily to express the Greek letter.--Coustant

55. "and the ones": The article, "the ones", is absent from the <published editions>, which <article> Mill and Wotton restore from the manuscript.--Gallandi

My Notes
A.  The discussion surrounding this word has been somewhat difficult to render so as to underscore the metaphor in play.  "Skamma" literally means a 'furrow' or 'dug ditch' that often was used to mark the boundaries for a wrestling match.  Hence, it became a metonym for any kind of struggle or exertion.
     Unfortunately, this metaphor has become otiose in contemporary English.  So the closest parallel I could think of for such a dual meaning that still maintained the literal sense of the Greek, was our use of the word "ring", as in the physical boundaries of a "boxing ring".  But since that use of "ring" in English is highly idiomatic and sounds awkward otherwise, I've chosen to translate "arena".
B.  The attribution of this quotation is a bit vague.  The Greek is substantially Chysostom's from the beginning of his first homily on Galatians describing Paul's preaching style, but it is slightly paraphrased by Young to fit his descriptive purposes.

C.  The manuscript text and the emendation are essentially the same word.  The latter, which merely drops the present tense stem reduplication (i.e., mimne -> mne), is considered a late form of the former.

D.  This reference is a bit confusing.  The "sixth synod" sometimes refers to the Third Council of Constantinople of 680, which also goes by the names of the Sixth Ecumenical Council or the Trullan Synod.  But the Quinisext Council of 692, a.k.a. the Council in Trullo, is also called the "sixth synod".  Part of the reason for this is that these church meetings were closely related in terms of purpose.
     I've found the relevant passages in the the commentaries of Balsamon, and in fact he names the former as "sixth synod" and the latter as "so-called sixth synod".  Only the latter produced canons, so that is what is referred to here.

E.  I presume this is Thomas Howard.

F.  It is difficult to capture in English the precise polar sense of the ensuing sequence of antitheses.  But one should also keep in mind that the Greek text is itself a translation from the Syriac, and consequently the original semantic fields may already shifted.

G. A cognate English translation would be "gymnastics", and the connotations of the word are decidedly physical; however, there remains the question of how literally the Pauline athletic metaphor is meant to be taken in any given author.

H. This is an editorial remark, I'm guessing by Young, that suggests the imperative plural, "strive!", instead of the hortatory subjunctive, "let us strive".

I.  The Greek sports terminology doesn't match up to modern activities.  But the sense requires the sport that uses all of a competitor's athletic resources.

J.  Tertullian's elliptical style makes this rhetorically enumerative list somewhat grammatically obscure.

L. This seems to be Fell's way of accounting for the semantic discrepancy between Pollux's technical restriction to jumpers and Paul's frequent analogies with runners.  Pollux's reputation for verbal sophistry, however, suggests that his meaning may be too narrow.

M.  English rendering does not adequately communicate the textual problem, but the note seems sufficiently clear.

N.  Fell's Oxford Latin syntax is often difficult.  The sense here is: "If indeed any Greek word is sports-related, certainly this word is, as we noted above".

O. For the discussion of Fell's usage of the translation, "trench", see n.47.  I confess that I don't quite see the sports-related connotation of "kanon" in the cited passages, however much it may be present elsewhere.  

Saturday, July 14, 2012

PG001(col. 219-222): First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: Chapter 6.

(From the 1765 Venice edition of  André Galland's "Library of the Ancient Fathers", Tome 1, folio-size, p. 9)
Author:  André Galland
Googlebooks PDF: PG001

Chapter 6

     To these men hallowedly[[41]] governing were gathered together a great multitude of elect, who having suffered with many outrages and tortures[[42]] because of envy, became among us a most beautiful example.  Having been persecuted because of envy, [women Danaids and Dirces][[43]], having suffered terrible and unholy outrages they arrive[{d} at the steady course of faith[[44]], and they weak in body obtained the noble prize.  Envy estranged wives from <their> men, and altered the <thing said> by our father Adam: 'Thi{s} now <is> bone from my bones and flesh from my flesh.'[[60c]]  Envy and strife overturned great cities and uprooted great peoples.

60c. Genesis 2:23

41. "Hallowedly": Thus <is> the manuscript here and in chapter 5 of the other epistle <sc. of Clement>. The editions in both places <have>, "divinely".  Wotton confirms this reading with many <words?>--Gallandi

42. "with many outrages and tortures": Others read, "many outrages and tortures"[[A]].--The same

43. "Danaids and Dirces":  Thus Wotton <reads> from the manuscript.  <Other> editions <have> '...Dirce'.  This passage has fixed a cross[[B]] for learned men.  Some judge that it was interpolated from Clement of Alexandria's "Miscellanies", book 4, chapter 19.  Others straightaway expunge <it>.  Others read otherwise.  Now, <Antoine> Birr demonstrates that they are deceived who think that those <words> were transferred here from the Alexandrian: since there is no "Dirce" there.  Whereas the "Danaids" are proposed as an example not of patience, but of womanly audacity in taking up arms.--Gallandi

     "Danaids and Dirce": <It> should perhaps be read, "Danae and Dirce".--Cotelier

     See the things which we wrote about this matter on page 3, section 11, chapters 5 and 14 of "The critical art".--Leclerc

     "Danaids and Dirce": There is no one who does not at first sight see that these things are foreign <to> this passage and plainly against the mind of the author, who has, if you will, lightly weighed out  his words which <appear> shortly above; where <having> abandoned ancient examples, he promises to bring out in public also newer (that I might use the word of Demosthenes) <examples> of his own century.  Now,  if <there is> place for conjecture, it <seems true> that a reading of Clement of Alexandria has provided the opportunity for this error, who <Clem. Alex.> in book 4 of the "Miscellanies", when he repeats the things which <appear> below near the end of this epistle and are explanatory of this passage, after the examples of Judith and Esther he adds from secular history and the tales of the poets several deeds of strong women, who scorned swords, fires, and the sufferings of torments with a constant and manly spirit (which it is discovered was also done by Tertullian in the "Book to the Martyrs"), among whom he mentions the daughters of Danaus and the author of "The Danaids", who composed in heroic song their history.  Whence it happened that since these words were first written in the margin of some ancient copy, they later crept into the text <due to> some inexperience librarian; however, <those words> which  enclosed in brackets we for that reason have separated from the remaining, are able to be retained not inappropriately if the particle "as" is prefixed, but the previous opinion is more favorable.--Young

     The conjectures of different <men> on this passage are various.  Cotelier suspects that in Greek "Danae and Dirce" are to be read.  But Jean Leclerc in "The Critical Art", page 3, section 2, chpater 6, note 15, conjectures that for the words "Danaids and Dirce" should be restored "without reverence and justice" [[Lat. Trans. Om.]], that is, irreverently [insofar as the weaker sex is considered] and against justice and right.  But I think no one with easily subscribe to his conjecture, since the sequence of speech demands that, in the manner that he most recently exhibited <examples> of men, so now he propose particular and individual examples of women.  It will far less please anyone that the Greek word "jealousy" [[Lat. Trans. Om.]][[C]] be understood.  For here it does not sound other than <it does> earlier, where Paul, Peter, David, etc., are mentioned as troubled "because of jealousy".  Nor does it seem more <likely to be heard>, since he established that about this passage, that "unless an error crept into it, there cannot be doubt that it is owed to a semi-pagan librarian," who united the tale of the daughters of Danaus with true histories.  Yet, as if it could not have happened around that time at which Peter and Paul suffered on account of the jealousy of the gentiles, that for the same cause two women named "Danaides and Dirce" were harassed, which <women> are elsewhere unknown to us.  Certainly the sequence of speech, as we were just saying, demands that singular examples of distinguished women be submitted: nor does it lead into error anything more than from the resemblance of names to attribute to one that which we know from another.  On account of which neither does their opinion seems acceptable, who by the fact that Clement of Alexandria in book 4 of the "Miscellanies" among the gentile women who begot for themselves praise for their own virtues, reckons the aforementioned daughters of Danaus, and mentions that they were celebrated by a certain poet with an encomium the title to which was "The Danaids", from which passage of the Alexandrian argue that that had been rashly stitched on by a certain librarian.--Coustant

44. "Towards the <course> of faith":  From Wotton thus <reads> the manuscript without the article "the"[[D]], which the editions add.--Gallandi

     "Arrived at the course":  Perhaps "to" <sc. instead of "at">[[E]], as below, "arrived to <maturity>".  Thus Paul at Ephesians 4:13 : "Until we all arrive to the unity of the faith"; and at Philippians 3:11 : "If somehow I will arrive to the resurrection of the dead".  I would prefer, however, <with> the preposition deleted, to read, "they accomplished", alluding to that <passage> of Paul <in> 2 Timothy 4:7  : "I have contended the good contest, I have finished the race, I have maintained the faith".--Young

My Notes
A. The difference is in one letter in the inflected suffixes which changes the dative instrument in to the accusative direct object.

B.  The "cross" seems to refer to an obelus, a cross-shaped mark used in textual criticism to indicate an unresolved corruption in the text.

C. The Latin word listed here is a Greek cognate, "zelotypia".  This differs from the common Latin translations  "aemulatio" and "invidia".  
     Also, I should note this somewhere in general remarks, but there is a difficulty in translating the two Greek words that are commonly rendered "jealousy" and "envy".  I'm not quite sure what the exact sense of each is supposed to be, since I doubt the proper English distinction (which if even recognized is often obscured in common speech) doesn't map cleanly on to them.  I suspect from the various Latin renderings that others have had similar difficulties with the precise sense of these words.

D. The point here is that the addition of the article would literally render this phrase as, "the course of the faith".  But Greek idiom is such that there is not necessarily a distinction between "course of faith" and "course of the faith", as there would be in English, where the former suggests the non-specific notion of belief, whereas the latter implies a specific creed, which is presumably what Clement intends.

E.  Another point about proper Greek idiom.  It would be smoother to render "come to" instead of "arrive to", but I want to preserve the same word.

Saturday, July 7, 2012

PG001(col. 217-220): First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: Chapter 5.

(From the 1765 Venice edition of  André Galland's "Library of the Ancient Fathers", Tome 1, folio-size, p. 9)
Author:  André Galland
Googlebooks PDF: PG001

Chapter 5

     But so that we may cease from ancient examples, let us come to <those who have most recently become> athletes; let us take the noble examples of our generation.  Because of envy and jealousy, <the> {Church's faith}ful[[29]] and most just pillar{s[[30]] were persecu}ted even unto {terrible} death[[31]].  Let us take before {our} eyes the good apostle{s[[32]].  Pete}r because of unjust envy neither {one n}or two, but several labors sust{ained}[[33]], and thus {having borne} witness[[34]] he journeyed to the deserv{ed} place of glory.  Because of envy, {}Paul sustained the prize of endurance[[35]], seven times having worn bonds, {bani}shed, stoned[[36]], having b{ec}ome a herald in the East and in {the} West, he received the noble[[37]] glory of his faith; having taught the whole world justice, an{d to} the end of the West[[38]] having come[[39]], and having borne witness before the rulers[[40]], thus was released from the world and journeyed to the holy place, of endurance having b{ec}ome <the> greatest model.

29. "Church's faithful":  <Anton> Birr would prefer <with> the article added, "the faithful".  But he conjectured from the wider space of the lacuna that even perhaps, "best", or, "greatest", or, "strongest" should be read.--Gallandi

30. "Pillars": Christ is the foundation of the Church, as Paul <says in the first epistle> to the Corinthians 3:11 : "For no one is able to place another foundation-stone beside the one lying, who is Jesus the Christ". Thus Cyril of Alexandria speaking on Micah about the Church: "For it has been founded upon rock, and her support is Christ[[A]] unshakable, and perpetual stability, savior and ransomer".  But the apostles here and there in the writings of the Fathers are called "pillars" of the world and of the Church.  Thus Basil at verse 4 <of> psalm 73, as is in our Catena: "Consider that the supportive power of the earth is called pillars; also pillars of Jerusalem are the apostles, according to the <thing said>: 'Pillar and support of the truth'."  Thus Chrysostom in "Ethics"[[B]], <in> homily 10 <on the epistle> to the Ephesians: "Many <it> is <available> to see as pillars standing.  For he <sc. Paul> knows to call also men pillars not only for strength, but also for beauty <since they are> providing much order, <they> having heads <covered in gold>".  Thus <in> homily 32 <on the epistle> to the Romans, where is had a most elegant encomium of the city of Rome, in which Peter and Paul suffered and were buried: "Because of this I marvel at the city, not because of the plentiful gold, not because of the columns, not because of the other pomp, but because of these pillars of the Church".  Thus Caesarius about Paul <in> response to question 20: "For <when he was> unbelieving, a wolf smiting and tearing Christians <was> Paul, now the pillar of the Church, the loud-sounding trumpet of faith".  Thus Theodoret about Peter, declares <in his oration> "On Charity": "Thus this great pillar propped up the shaking <inhabited world> and did not allow <it> to collapse completely, but he restored <it> and rendered <it> stable".  Nor only "pillars", but "ramparts" also and "towers of the Church" are they called; whence Cyril of Alexandria <says>, as is in our Catena at verse 4 <of> psalm 47: "Ramparts <they> are named, we say, the especially remarkable of the towers, <the very ones who> would be on the <outer facades> of the walls; therefore, nothing indeed <is strange>, inasmuch as indeed the Church once <has been called> a city, to say that her ramparts are the holy apostles, that is, the once-for-all teachers and <religious guides> of the holy churches; for <they> would be ramparts, the great and chosen of God's city, the <ones> <who are prominent> in it", and Chrysostom at verse 13 of the same psalm from the same Catena: "Either ramparts or towers of the Church we say are the holy apostles and evangelists".  Nevertheless, I am not unaware that sometimes also the titles of "foundation" and of "groundwork" are shared with the apostles, since evidently the Church upon the foundation, which is Christ, they founded and built, or as Ignatius to the Philadelphians says: "In the blood of the Christ with <their> own sweat and toil they established".  Whence Chrysostom <in> homily 2 on psalm 50: "Listen what he says to Peter the pillar, the groundwork, the <one> because of this called Peter, since he had been solidified in faith", and slightly later in the same place: "Pillar of the Church, the groundwork of faith, the head of the chorus of the apostles, Peter".  Thus Hesychius the presbyter <says> in an encomium of the divine Andrew in <the writings of> Photius, in the "Thousandbook": "<As> a hieratic trumpet Andrew gathered us to assembly, <he> the firstborn of the chorus of the apostles, the first-established pillar of the Church, the Peter before Peter, the foundation of the foundation, the <outset> of the beginning."--Young

31. "even unto {terrible} death": Young thus fills in the manuscript's gap; however, Wotton would prefer, "even unto death {they came}": [[Lat. trans. om.]].  Perhaps <this is> better.  Thus above <in> chapter 4: "Joseph <was persecuted> unto death, and <entered> unto slavery."--Gallandi

32. "the good apostles":  Perhaps "holy" should be written, or rather "first" or "chief", since originally through contraction "αους"[[C]], which is "first", might have been written.--Young

33. "Sustained": All editions <unanimously> <have>, "su{bmitted to}", against the reliability of the manuscript codex, which <with> Wotton <as> witness thus <reads>: "sust...", with a space of about six letters[[D]].  From this, he reads, "sust{ained}".--Gallandi

34. "Having borne witness": Regarding the time of the passion of Peter and Paul <it> is not clear.  The Roman synod under Pope Gelasius said that the heretics chatter that Peter and Paul at different times by martyrdom were crowned.  However, also thus thought Justin Martyr and Irenaeus, who <with> an anonymous Greek manuscript <as> witness, in the little book on the struggles of Peter and Paul, handed down that Paul was subjected to martyrdom five years after Peter.  Thus Philastrius reserves among the heretics <those> who would name the seven days of the week from the planets, although nevertheless it is established that the blessed Ignatius and Justin Martyr were accustomed to speak thus.--Colomiès

35. "sustained": The editions <have>, "received".  But from Wotton the manuscript exhibits, "s...ed". Therefore, he reads, "s{ustain}ed", and translates, "sustained the prize of patience".  Thus also Mill had read in his edition of the Greek New Testament, page 327.  Nevertheless, the Wottonian translation seems unusual to me, and foreign from the context; and so thus rather <it is> to be revised: "sustained the contest of patience".  For <with> Hesychius <as> witness, sometimes "prize" is the same as "race-course": which indeed properly denotes the place in which athletes would compete in race and wrestling; however, by the holy Fathers in place of the course of the present life also "contest" is sometimes elegantly used: as is <available> to see in <the writings of> <Johannes Henricus> Svicerus in the "Ecclesiastical Thesaurus", see <entries for> "Prize" and "Race-course".--Gallandi

36. "seven times having worn bonds, {thra}shed, stoned": <With> the Anglican edition's <emendation>,  "{puni}shed" expunged, I placed, "{thra}shed", on account of that <passage> of 2 Corinthians 11:25: "Three times I was thrashed, once I was stoned".  Now, we learn from this passage that Paul seven times had been thrown into chains: which I do not recall that I read in <the writings of> another author.--Cotelier

37. <From> "The noble" to "model": A learned man suspected that these <words> are from a gloss.--Edward Bernard

38. "To the end of the West": That Peter and Paul at Rome under Nero by martyrdom finished life, is more known that that it be called into doubt. Regarding the time, however, opinion is twofold: Certain ones want that on the same day and year both suffered, as Eusebius <has> from Dionysius, bishop of the Corinthians, and Caius the ecclesiastical writer: Others, on the same day, but <with> one year interjected.  See the notes of the great Scaliger on Eusebius.  Now, the anonymous (That anonymous is Symeon the Metaphrast.  The book is extant, but only in Latin, in <the writings of> Lippomano and Sauer at June 29)[[E]] author on the struggles, wanderings, life, and death of Peter and Paul, whom the lord Petraeus, the chaplain of the most illustrious Earl of Arundel, brought with himself from Greece, <this anonymous> recounts that Paul was subjected to martyrdom five years after Peter, and he praises Justin <sc. Martyr> and Irenaeus <as> the originators of this opinion, <and> his words <are> thus[[F]]: "But some say that Peter anticipated <by> one year, and received [that blessed thing, also an imperial suffering], having offered <his> life on behalf of the sheep; and that the great apostle Paul followed him, as Justin and Irenaeus say, after five whole years; and at any rate I rather believer these things".  From this treatise, since indeed an occasion not unsuitable to to this passage offers itself, <it> pleases to append several things in the order of supplement and abundance regarding Peter and our Clement, his successor, which things I think will be not unwelcome to readers: "Having remained" (evidently Peter) "in Britain some days, and having enlightened many with the word of grace, and having established churches, and having appointed bishops, presbyters, and deacons, in the twelfth year of Caesar Nero again to Rome he <came>; where having discovered also that Linus <had died>, in place of him he appointed Clement, <who was> refusing and begging <exemption from> leadership; <Peter> having persuaded whom <sc. Clement> also with sufficient words, and having urged <him> to take courage, he made <him> ascend to the chair [of his words][[G]];"  and a little later: "Therefore, the soldiers having immediately gathered all" (evidently <those> which had given <their> name to Christ) "lead <them> to the place of <judicial sentences>; and on the one hand Clement as" [see Eucherius in the testimonies about Clement][[H]] "a kinsman of Caesar they spare; but Herodion and Olympas" [about these <see> the divine Paul <in> Romans 16:11,15][[I]] "together with the multitude they led under the cut of the sword; and Peter the great apostle of the Lord" [see Theodoret. "On Charity"][[J]] "invertedly they affix to the cross, upon which also himself having borne the pains from the nails similarly to our Christ and God, he gives over his pure and undefiled soul into the hands of God.  But Clement, his student and bishop, having magnificently entombed his much-revered body, laid <it> down in a marked place."--Young

     "End of the West":  At Rome, this is in Hesperia, or Italy.--Fell

     But most friendly to Fell, John Pearson the bishop of Chester, in dissertation 1 on the succession of the first bishops of Rome, chapter 8, section 9, says, "Who ever has said that Rome was the boundaries or ends of the West?"  Then, he shows that Hispania can be understood.  Behold for yourself again another most erudite English bishop, Edward Stillingfleet, in "British Origins", chapter 1, interpreting <this to mean> Britannia, not without verisimilitude.  Consult both, for <with> the press urging on,  for one quickly writing these things <there is no time> to copy them <sc. the mentioned authors> out.--Leclerc

39. Or <the subsequent clause can be translated>, "he had said testimony in front of rulers", not doubting that blood flowed for the confession of truth.  Now, even if the word "rulers" sounds <like> many emperors, nevertheless here by a not unusual mode of speaking it designates the sole Nero.--Coustant

40. "Rulers": John Pearson, in a praised passage, understands prefects, which sort were in the final year of Nero the two <praetorian prefects> Tigellinus and Sabinus, and Helius[[K]] with full power.  Consult him <sc. Pearson>.--Leclerc

My Notes
A. The word, "groundwork", is absent from Young's citation of Cyril's commentary on Micah 7:10-11.  The text apparently should read, "and her support is Christ, unshakable foundation and perpetual stability, savior and ransomer".

B.  Young's note says, "Chrysostomus in Ethico", which I understand as meaning that "Ethics" is the title of a compilation that contains the cited homily of Chrysostom's.  I haven't been able to confirm this.

C. This is the letter alpha with an adjectival suffix corresponding to the modified noun.

D. The six letter space obviously does not correspond to the English here, although I have tried to render something of the problem in the Greek.

E.  This is apparently Migne's parenthetical updating of Young's note.  The date listed refers to the feast-day entry in Sauer's (Surius) critical edition of hagiographies, "De Probatis Sanctorum Historiis".  But the author is there listed as Sophronius, patriarch of Jerusalem; however, this attribution is now considered spurious.  I'm not sure how Symeon the Metaphrast came to be cited by this note, except perhaps by error.

F.  I cannot find the document quoted in the rest of this note, although I suspect that it may be in one of the Arundel manuscripts.  The work apparently bears the title rendered in Latin as, "De Certaminibus, Peregrinationibus, Vita et Morte Petri et Pauli".

G.  This phrase seems a bit strange.  I interpret "the chair of his words" to mean, the chair that his words persuaded Clement to accept.

H. Migne's bracketed note.

I. Migne's bracketed note.

J. Migne's bracketed note.

K. The freedman Nero left in power when he went to visit Greece.